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中国沙漠  2018, Vol. 38 Issue (5): 1049-1058    DOI: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-694X.2017.00055
生物与土壤     
甘肃河西干旱区温室葡萄对地表覆盖的响应
何钊全1, 张铜会1, 刘新平1, 张晓霞2, 张芮3
1. 中国科学院西北生态环境资源研究院, 甘肃 兰州 730000;
2. 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049;
3. 张掖市水务局灌溉试验站, 甘肃 张掖 734000
Response of Greenhouse Grape to Surface Mulching in Hexi Arid Region
He Zhaoquan1, Zhang Tonghui1, Liu Xinping1, Zhang Xiaoxia2, Zhang Rui3
1. Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China;
2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;
3. Zhangye Water Authority Irrigation Experiment Station, Zhangye 734000, Gansu, China
 全文: PDF 
摘要: 试验了温室葡萄超氧化物气化酶(SOD)活性、过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性、游离脯氨酸(Pro)含量、丙二醛(MDA)含量和果粒生长对地表覆盖的响应。结果表明:整个生育期内,砂土覆盖、秸秆覆盖、秸秆+白地膜覆盖及秸秆+黑地膜覆盖都对0~40 cm土层土壤有显著的保水作用,其中秸秆+黑地膜保水性能最强(土壤含水量比无覆盖的提高14.53%,P<0.05),且各覆盖方式的保水能力随着土层的加深而增强。秸秆+白地膜覆盖下葡萄细胞的抗氧化酶活性最高。砂土覆盖极显著(P<0.01)提高果粒内Pro含量(约增加42.40%)。砂土覆盖后葡萄果粒粒径最大,秸秆+地膜覆盖、秸秆覆盖下的果粒粒径均小于无覆盖的粒径。秸秆覆盖能够提高土壤水分含量,抑制果粒的增长。砂土覆盖可以作为温室葡萄适宜覆盖方式。
关键词: 葡萄地表覆盖生理指标保水性抗逆性    
Abstract: In order to screening the appropriate coverage way with good water retention, anti-reversibility of grapes and effect of promoting fruit growth, the response of the protective enzyme (SOD, CAT) activity, osmoregulation content (Pro) content and membrane lipid peroxide (MDA) content and physiological indexes in greenhouse grapes and grape fruit to surface mulching were studied. The main results showed that, in the whole growth period, sand mulch, straw mulch, straw plus white plastic film mulch and straw plus black plastic film mulch presented the significant effect of water retention under the soil layer in 0 to 40 cm, and the water retention capacity of the straw plus black plastic film mulch was strongest (the soil water content increased by 14.53%, compared with that of no cover, P<0.05), and the water retention capacity of different mulching ways increased with the deepening of the soil layer, grape cells had the highest antioxidant levels under straw plus white plastic film mulch. Free Pro content significantly (P<0.01) improved in fruit under the sand mulch (it increased about 42.40% compared with no cover), and was advantageous to the maintenance of strong osmotic regulation ability, but, Pro generation was few under straw mulch. Grape fruit grain size was the largest under the sand mulch, however, the grape fruit grain size of straw+plastic film mulch, straw mulch were less than that of no cover treatment. Therefore, straw mulch increased moderately soil moisture, but reduced the water absorption ability of the cells, and inhibited the growth of the fruit. Straw plus white plastic film mulch significantly promoted the accumulation of soil moisture, prompted plentiful production of antioxidant enzymes, and fully protected the cells from reactive oxygen species, but it affected negatively the growth of grape fruit. The straw plus black plastic film mulch had the best effect of water retention and proper effect for maintaining the integrity of the cell, but the fruit promotion efficiency of it was not obvious. It was confirmed in study that sand mulch had significant promoting role in grape fruit, and has a certain water retention capacity and favorable ability of balancing the water metabolism of cell. Therefore, sand mulch was used as the best mulch way increasing water content, protecting cell membrane lipid and increasing fruit grain. The conclusion can provide the theory basis for the water-saving production mechanism of cultivation in grapes under surface mulching.
Key words: grape    surface cover    physiological indexes    water retention    resistance
收稿日期: 2017-02-05 出版日期: 2018-11-03
ZTFLH:  Q945.79  
基金资助: 中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDA05050201-04-01);国家自然科学基金项目(41371053)
通讯作者: 张铜会(E-mail:zhangth@lzb.ac.cn)     E-mail: zhangth@lzb.ac.cn
作者简介: 何钊全(1990-),男,甘肃庆阳人,博士研究生,主要从事恢复生态学研究。E-mail:hzqyjjllylb@163.com
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引用本文:

何钊全, 张铜会, 刘新平, 张晓霞, 张芮. 甘肃河西干旱区温室葡萄对地表覆盖的响应[J]. 中国沙漠, 2018, 38(5): 1049-1058.

He Zhaoquan, Zhang Tonghui, Liu Xinping, Zhang Xiaoxia, Zhang Rui. Response of Greenhouse Grape to Surface Mulching in Hexi Arid Region. Journal of Desert Research, 2018, 38(5): 1049-1058.

链接本文:

http://www.desert.ac.cn/CN/10.7522/j.issn.1000-694X.2017.00055        http://www.desert.ac.cn/CN/Y2018/V38/I5/1049

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