中国沙漠 ›› 1989, Vol. 6 ›› Issue (1): 14-24.

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  1. 中国科学院兰州沙漠研究所
  • 出版日期:1986-03-20 发布日期:1986-03-20

Status of Utilization and Vistas of Development of Water Resources in jirem League

Cheng Guanting   

  1. Institute of Desert Research, Academia Sinica, Lanzhou
  • Online:1986-03-20 Published:1986-03-20

摘要: 水是自然环境中极为活跃的因子。干旱是沙漠化一个最为重要的外在因素。水分条件的变化带来环境的一系列变化,促使沙漠化强烈发展或逆转。科尔沁草原哲里木盟属于温带半湿润与半干旱过渡地带。地表水资源平均有24.24亿立方米/年。地下水的年调节储量为42.77亿立方米,目前总引用量为4.85亿立方米,还有很大潜力。然而无论地表水和地下水,开发利用的技术水平都较差,实际利用率均低于0.6,地域上也很不平衡,应当改进技术、调整结构。近年来全区地下水位逐年下降,1983年比1979年的水位普遍下降0.25-0.5米,并且在通辽市附近出现总面积1094平方公里,中心水位埋深10.30米的下降漏斗,全区性水位下降的主要原因是,六十年代末以后降水减少,补给不足造成,但过度开采加剧了这一影响。今后用水的原则应当是从全局出发,上、下游统筹安排,上游多用地下水,下游用地表水;沙区则应大力开发地下水资源,促进水分循环,造成有利于沙漠化逆转的生态环境,治理沙漠化土地。

Abstract: Water is an active element in natural environment. Drought is the most important external factor of desertification. The changes of moisture condition bring a series changes of environment and cause finally further developmentof desertification or impei rehabilitation of land desertification. Jirem League on Horqin Sandy Land is a part transitional zone of subhumid and semi-arid climate in the temperate zone. Surface water resource is approximately 2424 million cubic metres annually and storage of groundwater is 4277 million cubic metres.There is great potential of the development of water resources and the diversion volume of water in recent time is only 485 million cubic metres. The technical level, however, on both surface water utilization and groundwater development is still in poor condition and the effective rate of utilization are both below 60%. The imbalance of local distribution is obvious It is suggested to promote the technology of water-use and readjust the structure of water-use. Recently, ground water level in the whole league goes down gradually. In comparison with the groundwater level in 1979, the groundwater level in 1983 was commonly declined 0.25-0.5 metre. For instance the depth of groundwater level declined 10.30 metres anb a funnel is formed occupying an area of 1094 sa. km around Tongliao, Inner Mongolia. The main causes of the decline of local groundwater level are the reduction of precipitation since later 1960's and the insufficiency of recharge of ground-water. Misuse of water resources promoted the process. It is suggested that the use of water resources in future should be considered on an averall point of view and all-round arrangement on the water use at upper and lower reaches should be made. It is presented a) to utilize groundwater at upper reach; b) to use surface water st lower reach; c) to develop groundwater in desert areas; d) to create ecological environment for rehadilitating land desertification; and e) to preserve the degradated land areas.