中国沙漠 ›› 2016, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (3): 636-643.DOI: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-694X.2016.00025

• 生物与土壤 • 上一篇    下一篇

沙米(Agriophyllum squarrosum)生物学特性、营养价值及驯化可行性

赵杰才1, 赵鹏善1, 赵昕1, 马小飞1, 王艳莉1,2, 周琴1, 陈国雄1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所 沙坡头沙漠研究试验站/甘肃省逆境生理与生态重点实验室, 甘肃 兰州 730000;
    2. 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2015-12-24 修回日期:2016-03-01 出版日期:2016-05-20 发布日期:2016-05-20
  • 通讯作者: 陈国雄(
  • 作者简介:赵杰才(1987),男,山西静乐人,博士研究生,主要从事沙米驯化育种研究。
  • 基金资助:


Biological Characters, Nutrient Value and Domestication Feasibility of Agriophyllum squarrosum

Zhao Jiecai1, Zhao Pengshan1, Zhao Xin1, Ma Xiaofei1, Wang Yanli1,2, Zhou Qin1, Chen Guoxiong1   

  1. 1. Shapotou Desert Research and Experiment Station/Key Laboratory of Stress Physiology and Ecology in Gansu, Cold and Arid Regions Environment and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China;
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2015-12-24 Revised:2016-03-01 Online:2016-05-20 Published:2016-05-20


沙米(Agriophyllum squarrosum)为苋科藜亚科一年生草本,广泛分布于中亚干旱和半干旱沙区。其种子营养价值堪比联合国粮农组织推荐的全营养食物藜麦,蛋白质、脂肪和碳水化合物含量分别为23.2%、9.7%和45.0%;蛋白质中包含所有人体必需氨基酸;脂肪的主要成分为亚油酸、油酸和次亚油酸等不饱和脂肪酸;沙米还是优良的功能食品,含较多的绿原酸、SOD、异黄酮、皂甙、生物碱、铁、锌和硒等。1300多年前沙米便被记载食用,但至今未能被成功驯化。我们将通过沙米遗传资源收集与选择、诱导突变、科学筛选和合理栽培,改良其不良野生性状如种子偏小、出苗不齐、叶片带刺等,期望培育出沙米高产优质栽培品种。在全球气候变化和粮食危机的大背景下,进行沙米驯化育种符合国家粮食安全战略需求。

关键词: 沙米(Agriophyllumsquarrosum), 粮食安全, 全球气候变化, 藜麦, 诱导突变, 驯化育种


Agriophyllum squarrosum (L.) Moq is an annual psammophyte belonged to subfamily Chenopodiaceae of Amaranthaceae, which distributes wildly in moving sand dunes in arid and semi-arid regions of Central Asia. The seed has a high nutrient value containing around 23.2% protein, 9.7% lipid and 45.0% carbohydrates, which can be comparable to Quinoa, a crop that called as entire human nutrient food by FAO. There are all of the essential amino acids in protein of sand rice. Main contents of A. squarrosum seed fat are linoleic acid, Oleic acid and linolenic acid. If calculate by the first limit essential amino acids-Lysine content, 1 200 kg A. squarrosum seed which is a potential yield per hectare equals to 3 840 kg wheat and 4 800 kg rice. There are also some physiological activators such as chlorogenic acid, SOD, isoflavone, saponin, alkaloids and minerals such as Fe, Zn, Se in sand rice which are good for human health. A. squarrosum seed had been recorded as food 1 300 years ago, but in such a long history people never domesticate it. Through collecting wild genetic resources, mutation induction, plant selection and suitable cultivation, we try to improve some wild traits, such as small seed, irregularity germination, side branch first-grow pattern, stinging leaves and bracts. In the near future, we hope to create a high yield, well-performed cultivar. In the climate change and global food crisis, domesticating A. squarrosum as a food crop is urgent and suit for national food security strategy.

Key words: Agriophyllum squarrosum, food security, global climate change, Quinoa, induced mutation, domestication and breeding