Please wait a minute...
img

官方微信

高级检索
中国沙漠  2020, Vol. 40 Issue (4): 138-145    DOI: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-694X.2019.00093
    
甘肃酒泉荒漠戈壁灌木群落优势物种生态位特征
董雪1(),李永华2(),张正国2,李思瑶2,包岩峰2,郝玉光1,姚斌2
1.中国林业科学研究院,沙漠林业实验中心,北京 100091
2.中国林业科学研究院,荒漠化研究所,北京 100091
Niche of dominant shrub species in desert gobi in Jiuquan Gansu, China
Xue Dong1(),Yonghua Li2(),Zhengguo Zhang2,Siyao Li2,Yanfeng Bao2,Yuguang Hao1,Bin Yao2
1.Experimental Center of Desert Forestry /, Chinese Academy Forestry, Beijing 100091, China
2.Institute of Desertification Studies, Chinese Academy Forestry, Beijing 100091, China
 全文: PDF(1114 KB)   HTML
摘要:

了解物种利用资源和占据生态空间的能力,对维持完善和科学保育荒漠戈壁植物群落的多样性具有重要意义。在综合反映各生态因子作用的群落类型和海拔梯度组合而成的两条资源轴上,测度分析了甘肃酒泉荒漠戈壁灌木群落主要优势种的生态位特征。结果表明:(1)在群落类型和海拔梯度两条资源轴上,红砂(Reaumuria songarica)、泡泡刺(Nitraria sphaerocarpa)和合头草(Sympegma regelii)的重要值和生态位宽度均较大,说明这些物种适应能力强,能够较好地利用环境资源,分布范围大,作为荒漠戈壁灌木群落中的广域种具有重要的生态地位和作用。(2)荒漠戈壁优势物种间的生态位重叠值多数较小,在群落类型和海拔梯度资源轴上生态位重叠值小于0.5的分别占总种对的62.63%和77.89%。生态位宽度大的物种之间一般生态位重叠值较高,物种利用资源能力强且存在竞争关系;然而,生态位宽度较小的物种与其他物种之间的生态位重叠程度较低,不同物种在环境资源的需求上产生互补,可以和谐共存;生态位宽度小的物种之间生态位重叠值仍较高,物种分布呈斑块现象;因此,生态位重叠与生态位宽度之间无显著相关性。(3)荒漠戈壁优势物种间总体表现为不显著的正关联,表明该植被群落结构及其物种之间处于稳定共存的状态。

关键词: 荒漠戈壁灌木群落优势物种生态位宽度生态位重叠    
Abstract:

The two resource axes are composed by community types and stand altitude, which can reflect various ecological factors. The paper deals with the niche measurement of the dominant species of desert gobi shrub community in Jiuquan, Gansu province. The ability in utilizing resources and occupying ecological spaces by different species is important for maintaining, self-improvement, scientific conservation and managing the diversity of desert gobi shrub communities.The results showed that: (1) Across the community types and altitude gradient, important values and niche breadth were major in Reaumuria songarica, Nitraria sphaerocarpa and Sympegma regelii. Thus,these species had high adaptability,broad habitats,and inclined to be generalist species which played an important role in the communities due to strong ecological adaptability in desert gobi shrub communities.(2) Most shrub species’ niche overlap values were minor, of which 62.63% and 77.89% shrub species were lower than 0.5 across the two resource axes. The species with higher niche breadth had relatively larger niche overlap, due to species had strong ability to utilize resources and were competitive in shrub communities. However, the species with higher niche breadth or species with lower niche breadth had relatively small niche overlap, due to different species complement each other in their environmental resource needs and can coexist in harmony. The species with lower niche breadth had larger niche overlap,because of the habitat patch of species distribution. It suggested that there was no signi?cant correlation between niche overlap and niche breadth. (3)Macro-association was significantly positively correlated among 20 dominant species,this result indicated that the plant community was in a relatively stable status.

Key words: desert gobi    dominant species of shrub communities    niche breadth    niche overlap
收稿日期: 2019-08-28 出版日期: 2020-09-01
ZTFLH:  Q948.1  
基金资助: 国家自然科学基金项目(41671049);国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFC503804-4);科技基础资源调查专项(2017FY100203-1)
通讯作者: 李永华     E-mail: dongxue98765@126.com;lyhids@caf.ac.cn
作者简介: 董雪(1986—),女,内蒙古巴彦淖尔人,硕士,工程师,主要从事荒漠化防治方面的研究。 E-mail: dongxue98765@126.com
服务  
把本文推荐给朋友
加入引用管理器
E-mail Alert
RSS
作者相关文章  
董雪
李永华
张正国
李思瑶
包岩峰
郝玉光
姚斌

引用本文:

董雪,李永华,张正国,李思瑶,包岩峰,郝玉光,姚斌. 甘肃酒泉荒漠戈壁灌木群落优势物种生态位特征[J]. 中国沙漠, 2020, 40(4): 138-145.

Xue Dong,Yonghua Li,Zhengguo Zhang,Siyao Li,Yanfeng Bao,Yuguang Hao,Bin Yao. Niche of dominant shrub species in desert gobi in Jiuquan Gansu, China. Journal of Desert Research, 2020, 40(4): 138-145.

链接本文:

http://www.desert.ac.cn/CN/10.7522/j.issn.1000-694X.2019.00093        http://www.desert.ac.cn/CN/Y2020/V40/I4/138

图1  样地设置图
编号物种群落类型海拔梯度
重要值生态位宽度重要值生态位宽度
1泡泡刺(Nitraria sphaerocarpa)1.321.491.681.78
2红砂(Reaumuria songarica)1.081.542.002.22
3沙拐枣(Calligonum mongolicum)1.040.830.841.25
4合头草(Sympegma regelii)0.911.441.371.95
5麻黄(Ephedra przewalskii)0.611.350.601.96
6梭梭(Haloxylon ammodendron)0.580.220.501.32
7盐爪爪(Kalidium foliatum)0.440.621.281.60
8骆驼刺(Alhagi sparsifolia)0.210.580.170.27
9灌木铁线莲(Clematis fruticosa)0.171.520.041.25
10霸王(Sarcozygium xanthoxylon)0.161.460.161.66
11裸果木(Gymnocarpos przewalskii)0.131.410.151.68
12松叶猪毛菜(Salsola laricifolia)0.121.460.060.69
13柽柳(Tamarix chinensis)0.111.110.351.14
14蓍状亚菊(Ajania achilloide)0.101.250.511.72
15灌木亚菊(Ajania fruticulosa)0.061.050.611.15
16细枝盐爪爪(Kalidium gracile)0.050.650.821.71
17短叶假木贼(Anabasis brevifolia)0.041.070.161.27
18驼绒藜(Ceratoides latens)0.040.900.111.24
19木本猪毛菜(Salsola arbuscula)0.031.260.020.63
20紫菀木(Asterothamnus alyssoides)0.030.860.241.89
表1  荒漠戈壁20个优势灌木物种的重要值及生态位宽度
1234567891011121314151617181920
10.3170.4700.3660.5570.4970.0740.3660.2860.3800.3640.2850.8120.1100.0110.0440.4000.0940.1460.275
20.4080.1800.6630.5090.1230.5830.1260.5200.4370.5840.3680.0800.9010.3510.6680.4970.2820.1540.750
30.0710.0370.0800.5470.8170.0090.7020.0030.6190.0700.0500.7050.0170.0000.0000.2450.0690.5820.012
40.2270.5480.0570.6790.0830.4240.0300.5030.5440.6740.7790.0290.3520.1680.3120.4780.4370.1750.733
50.2330.3160.3990.6050.5570.1750.1080.3210.9290.4260.4740.3620.2110.0650.1510.7360.4420.4770.379
60.1990.1490.1330.1560.0040.0140.2510.0490.6810.1480.0320.7940.0310.0050.0050.1330.0410.8530.093
70.0900.5260.0010.3120.0770.0180.0010.4640.1080.4540.0080.0050.5610.3250.6190.1880.3870.0250.479
80.2270.0390.0830.0510.0000.3430.0220.0000.0490.0110.0120.4740.0040.0000.0000.0570.0160.0000.000
90.5710.7740.0290.8290.3880.0190.4570.0000.2970.7440.0530.0110.4160.0940.2500.6250.1760.1750.697
100.5180.2540.7570.4290.7310.0020.1440.0000.4730.3870.3990.3090.1680.0280.0780.6710.2740.7020.328
110.3270.6330.0520.9470.7380.0130.2320.0000.8380.5010.3220.1320.3870.1140.2290.4500.1560.2710.916
120.2690.9530.0460.5890.4400.1590.6630.0440.7040.2640.6570.0030.0320.0040.0060.1450.0420.0480.396
130.2140.3920.0690.8060.9100.0040.0900.0000.5540.5140.9020.4970.0060.0010.0010.0090.0030.4370.066
140.7830.7820.0360.3920.3170.0250.0930.0000.7430.4180.5670.6120.3600.3560.7230.2730.2020.0910.609
150.1810.7740.0020.6490.1590.0240.8520.0000.7940.2110.5750.8150.2900.3910.8760.0360.6750.0170.356
160.1000.5270.0000.5880.1270.0140.9200.0000.6610.2130.4540.6310.2370.1300.9360.1260.6520.0180.504
170.2130.8610.0330.4230.4560.0310.7290.0000.5540.2520.5270.9570.4500.5080.7440.6070.3250.1470.342
180.0980.5220.0240.5200.3850.0140.9360.0000.5270.2940.4690.7090.4140.1100.8210.9020.7740.0530.287
190.4520.8150.0130.4250.1580.0270.8710.0000.7390.2970.4350.8310.1940.5660.9010.8260.8280.8040.247
200.1280.3630.0480.9510.7300.0010.1630.0000.6860.4510.9390.4400.9090.2700.4580.4350.3210.4420.229
表2  荒漠戈壁20个优势灌木物种生态位重叠
图2  种间生态位重叠值分布特征
系数δT2ST2方差比率(VR)检验统计量(W)χ2临界值(χ20.95N, χ20.05N)测度结果
测度值4.585.221.1493.48(61.31,104.14)不显著正关联
表3  优势物种间的整体关联性分析
1 Rousset O,Lepart J.Positive and negative interactions at different life stages of a colonizing species (Quercus humilis)[J].Journal of Ecology,2000,88:401-412.
2 Brooker R W,Maestre F T,Callaway R M,et al.Facilitation in plant communities:the past,the present,and the future[J].Journal of Ecology,2008,96:18-34.
3 Hurlbert S H.The measurement of niche overlap and some relatives[J]. Ecology,1978,59:67-77.
4 Robert M,Christoph N,Wilhelm B,et al.Biodiversity and endemism mapping as a tool for regional conservation planning case study of the Pleurothallidinae (Orchidaceae) of the Andean rain forests in Bolivia[J].Biodiversity and Conservation,2003,12:2005-2024.
5 李登武,张文辉,任争争.黄土沟壑区狼牙刺群落优势种群生态位研究[J].应用生态学报,2005,16(12):2231-2235.
6 王正宁,贺康宁,张卫强,等.半干旱地区植被恢复过程中林下植被生态位特征的研究[J].水土保持学报,2005,19(5):162-165.
7 霍红,冯起,苏永红,等.额济纳绿洲植物群落种间关系和生态位研究[J].中国沙漠,2013,33(4):1027-1033.
8 王乃江,张文辉,陆元昌.陕西子午岭森林植物群落种间联结性[J].生态学报,2010,30(1):67-78.
9 奚为民.怀柔山区灌丛群落优势种群生态位的研究[J].植物生态学与地植物学学报,1993,17(4):324-330.
10 Gaston K J.Global patterns in biodiversity[J].Nature,2000,405:220-226.
11 徐远杰,陈亚宁,李卫红,等.伊犁河谷山地植物群落物种多样性分布格局及环境解释[J].植物生态学报,2010,34(10):1142-1154.
12 李海东,陈斌,曹学章,等.基于SPOT-VGT NDVI的雅鲁藏布江流域植被动态变化[J].山地学报,2016,34(2):249-256.
13 何芳兰,刘世增,李昌龙,等.甘肃河西戈壁植物群落组成特征及其多样性研究[J].干旱区资源与环境,2016,30(4):74-78.
14 陈鹏,潘晓玲.河西走廊地区植物的区系特征[J].植物研究,2001,21(1):24-30.
15 夏延国,宁宇,李景文,等.中国黑戈壁地区植物区系及其物种多样性研究[J].西北植物学报,2013,33(9):1906-1915.
16 王健铭,董芳宇,巴海,等.中国黑戈壁植物多样性分布格局及其影响因素[J].生态学报,2016,36(12):3488-3498.
17 朱军涛,于静洁,王平,等.额济纳荒漠绿洲植物群落的数量分类及其与地下水环境的关系分析[J].植物生态学报,2011,35(5):480-489.
18 鱼腾飞,冯起,司建华,等.黑河下游额济纳绿洲植物群落物种多样性的空间异质性[J].应用生态学报,2011,22(8):1961-1966.
19 马克平.生物多样性的测度方法 I.α多样性的测度方法[J].生物多样性,1994,2(2):162-168.
20 张金屯.数量生态学[M].北京:科学出版社,2004.
21 Pianka E R. The structure of lizard communities[J]. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics,1973,4:53-74.
22 Schluter D.A vatiance test for detecting species associations,with some example applications[J].Ecology,1984,65(3):998-1005.
23 刘加珍,陈亚宁,张元明.塔里木河中游植物种群在四种环境梯度上的生态位特征[J].应用生态学报,2004,15(4):549-555.
24 陈玉凯,杨琦,莫燕妮,等.海南岛霸王岭国家重点保护植物的生态位研究[J].植物生态学报,2014,38(6):576-584.
25 张东梅,赵文智,罗维成.荒漠草原带盐碱地优势植物生态位与种间联结[J].生态学杂志,2018,37(5):1307-1315.
26 陈俊华,刘兴良,何飞,等.卧龙巴朗山川滇高山栎灌丛主要木本植物种群生态位特征[J].林业科学,2010,46(3):23-28.
27 卢妮妮,凌威,郭倩,等.基于生态位分割的森林资源经营与评价:以北京鹫峰国家森林公园为例[J].中南林业科技大学学报,2016,36(10):41-47.
28 Spies T A,Franklin J F,Klopsch M.Canopy gaps in Doug-las-fir forests of the Cascade Mountains[J].Canadian Journal of Forest Research,1990,20:649-658.
29 余世孝.数学生态学导论[M].北京:科学技术文献出版社,1995.
30 张伟,王万林,胡玉昆,等.新疆伊犁荒漠草原恢复措施下植物群落生态位特征分析[J].中国生态农业学报,2011,19(2):358-362.
31 班卫强,严成,尹林克,等.古尔班通古特沙漠南缘不同立地条件植物多样性和优势种群生态位特征研究[J].中国沙漠,2012,32(6):1632-1638.
32 刘巍,曹伟.长白山云冷杉群落主要种群生态位特征[J].生态学杂志,2011,30(8):1766-1774.
33 陈志伟,伊贤贵,王贤荣,等.黄山微毛樱群落主要种群生态位特征[J].南京林业大学学报(自然科学版),2014,38():39-46.
34 杨晓东,龚雪伟,朱丽安,等.胡杨(Populus euphratica)水分再分配与其伴生种多样性和生态位的关系[J].中国沙漠,2017,37(5):933-941.
35 柴宗政,王得祥,张丽楠,等.秦岭山地天然油松群落主要植物种群生态位特征[J].生态学杂志,2012,31(8):1917-1923.
36 王仁忠.放牧影响下羊草草地主要植物种群生态位宽度与生态位重叠的研究[J].植物生态学报,1997,21(4):304-311.
37 张峰,上官铁梁.翅果油树群落优势种群生态位分析[J].西北植物学报,2004,24(1):70-74.
38 赵永华,雷瑞德,何兴元,等.秦岭锐齿栎林种群生态位特征研究[J].应用生态学报,2004,15(6):913-918.
39 杜道林,刘玉成,李睿.缙云山亚热带栲树林优势种群间联结性研究[J].植物生态学报,1995,19(2):149-157.
40 周先叶,王伯荪,李鸣光,等.广东黑石顶自然保护区森林次生演替过程中群落的种间联结性分析[J].植物生态学报,2000,24(3):332-339.
[1] 杨晓东, 龚雪伟, 朱丽安, 吕光辉. 胡杨(Populus euphratica)水分再分配与其伴生种多样性和生态位的关系[J]. 中国沙漠, 2017, 37(5): 933-941.
[2] 王希义, 徐海量, 潘存德, 凌红波, 张沛. 塔里木河下游优势草本植物与地下水埋深的关系[J]. 中国沙漠, 2016, 36(1): 216-224.
[3] 刘新民, 陈海燕, 乌宁, 郭砺. 腾格里沙漠生态系统不同固沙方式下昆虫群落的生态位分异研究[J]. 中国沙漠, 2002, 22(6): 566-570.