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中国沙漠  2020, Vol. 40 Issue (5): 10-19    DOI: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-694X.2020.00040
    
西安重度以上污染天气PM2.5重金属污染特征与健康风险
王鑫1(),肖舜1(),董治宝1,曹军骥2,张宁宁2,刘随心2,沈振兴3,徐红梅3,管清玉4,陶燕4,蔡瑞婷1,王雨萌1
1.陕西师范大学 地理科学与旅游学院,陕西 西安 710119
2.中国科学院地球环境研究所 中国科学院气溶胶化学与物理重点实验室,陕西 西安 710061
3.西安交通大学 能源与动力学院,陕西 西安 710049
4.兰州大学 资源环境学院,甘肃 兰州730000
Pollution characteristics and health risk of heavy metals in PM2.5 in severely polluted weather in Xi'an, China
Xin Wang1(),Shun Xiao1(),Zhibao Dong1,Junji Cao2,Ningning Zhang2,Suixin Liu2,Zhenxing Shen3,Hongmei Xu3,Qingyu Guan4,Yan Tao4,Ruiting Cai1,Yumeng Wang1
1.College of Geography Science and Tourism,Shaanxi Normal University,Xi'an 710119,China
2.Key Laboratory of Aerosol Chemistry and Physics,Institute of Earth Environment,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Xi'an 710061,China
3.School of Energy and Power Engineering,Xi'an Jiaotong University,Xi'an 710049,China
4.College of Earth and Environmental Sciences,Lanzhou University,Lanzhou 730000,China
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摘要:

为研究汾渭平原核心城市(西安)重度以上污染天气PM2.5重金属污染特征及健康风险,选取2018年11月至2019年1月采集的PM2.5大气颗粒物样品,分析采样期间重度以上污染天气(AQI>200)PM2.5中与人群暴露健康风险关联的9种典型重金属成分,利用相关性分析揭示与气象因子的关系,运用富集因子、相关性和主成分分析方法判断来源,借助美国EPA风险暴露模型表征重金属健康风险水平。结果表明:PM2.5平均浓度191.49±48.67 μg·m-3,重金属的平均浓度(ng·m-3)顺序为Zn(324.98)、Mn(123.52)、Pb(118.59)、Cu(46.78)、As(18.11)、Cr(16.24)、Ni(5.37)、V(4.59)、Co(3.13)。致癌重金属中Cr与风速呈显著负相关(-0.462),Ni与气压呈显著负相关(-0.503)、Co与温度呈显著负相关(-0.506)。Zn、Pb、As污染与人为源密切相关,Ni、Co、Cu污染是自然源和人为源的共同作用;交通和燃煤排放、风飏粉尘、岩石风化排放一次气溶胶是重金属的主要来源。Mn元素具有较大非致癌风险,其他元素非致癌风险可忽略;Cr、As、Co风险值高于一般可接受水平,具有潜在致癌风险。

关键词: PM2.5重金属污染特征健康风险汾渭平原核心城市    
Abstract:

To study the pollution characteristics and health risks of heavy metals in PM2.5 in severely polluted weather in Xi'an, a core city in Fenwei Plain of China, this study selected PM2.5 atmospheric particulate matter samples collected from November 2018 to January of the following year. It is used to analyze 9 typical heavy metal components in PM2.5 that are associated with the health risks of population exposure in severely polluted weather (AQI >200) during the sampling period, the correlation analysis to reveal the relationship with meteorological factors, the enrichment factor, correlation analysis and principal component analysis to determine the source, the EPA risk exposure model was used to characterize the health risk level. The results show that the average mass concentration of PM2.5 is 191.49±48.67 μg·m-3. The average concentration of heavy metal elements from high to low is Zn, Mn, Pb, Cu, As, Cr, Ni, V, Co. Correlation analysis with meteorological factors found that Cr was significantly negatively correlated with wind speed (-0.462), Ni was significantly negatively correlated with air pressure (-0.503), and Co was significantly negatively correlated with temperature (-0.506). Enrichment factor analysis results show that Zn, Pb, As pollution is closely related to anthropogenic sources, and Ni, Co, Cu pollution is the combined effect of natural and anthropogenic sources; Correlation analysis and principal component analysis results show that the main sources of heavy metals are transportation and coal combustion, wind dust, and rock weathering. The results of the health risk show that the non-carcinogenic risk of Mn element is high, and the non-carcinogenic risk of other elements can be ignored; and Cr, As, and Co risk values are higher than generally acceptable levels, which has potential carcinogenic risks.

Key words: PM2.5    heavy metals    pollution characteristics    health risk    core city in Fenwei Plain
收稿日期: 2020-01-18 出版日期: 2020-09-28
ZTFLH:  X51  
基金资助: 国家自然科学基金项目(41771220);中央高校基本科研业务费自由探索项目(GK201803054)
通讯作者: 肖舜     E-mail: wangxin_0622@126.com;sxiao@snnu.edu.cn
作者简介: 王鑫(1995—),女,山西运城人,硕士研究生,研究方向为大气污染与环境健康。E-mail: wangxin_0622@126.com
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王鑫
肖舜
董治宝
曹军骥
张宁宁
刘随心
沈振兴
徐红梅
管清玉
陶燕
蔡瑞婷
王雨萌

引用本文:

王鑫,肖舜,董治宝,曹军骥,张宁宁,刘随心,沈振兴,徐红梅,管清玉,陶燕,蔡瑞婷,王雨萌. 西安重度以上污染天气PM2.5重金属污染特征与健康风险[J]. 中国沙漠, 2020, 40(5): 10-19.

Xin Wang,Shun Xiao,Zhibao Dong,Junji Cao,Ningning Zhang,Suixin Liu,Zhenxing Shen,Hongmei Xu,Qingyu Guan,Yan Tao,Ruiting Cai,Yumeng Wang. Pollution characteristics and health risk of heavy metals in PM2.5 in severely polluted weather in Xi'an, China. Journal of Desert Research, 2020, 40(5): 10-19.

链接本文:

http://www.desert.ac.cn/CN/10.7522/j.issn.1000-694X.2020.00040        http://www.desert.ac.cn/CN/Y2020/V40/I5/10

参数参数意义单位成年 男性成年 女性儿童
lnhR呼吸速率m3·d-116.613.58.6
EF暴露频率d·a-1365365365
ED暴露周期a30306
BW体重kg67.357.515
AT(致癌)平均暴露时间d72.4×36577.4×365
AT(非致癌)平均暴露时间dED×365ED×365ED×365
表1  健康风险暴露参数值[33-34]
元素RfD/(mg·kg- 1·d- 1)元素RfD/(mg·kg- 1·d- 1)SF/(kg·d·mg-1)
V7.00x10-3Cr2.86 x10-542
Mn1.43x10-5Co5.71 x10-59.8
Cu4.02x10-2Ni2.06x10-20.84
Zn3.00x10-1As3.01x10-415.1
Pb3.52x10-3
表2  重金属暴露参考剂量(RfD)和致癌斜率因子(SF)[35-36]
图1  重度以上污染天气PM2.5质量浓度和9种重金属总浓度
图2  重度以上污染天气重金属平均水平
图3  重度污染I~V阶段重金属水平
城市VCrMnCoNiCuZnAsPb
西安(本研究)4.5916.24123.523.135.3746.78324.9818.11118.59
北京[40]15.322.462.028.136.8313.037.9117.3
上海[27]311322729465133
广州[38]993443722577
成都[41]1.79.2662.52335020172
表3  西安市PM2.5中9种重金属浓度与国内主要城市比较
PM2.5与重金属风速温度相对湿度气压
PM2.5-0.419*0.0210.2110.054
V0.0870.590*-0.331-0.511*
Cr-0.462*-0.1680.3670.291
Mn-0.2120.215-0.026-0.434*
Co-0.289-0.506*0.3000.354
Ni-0.1180.296-0.134-0.503*
Cu-0.395-0.3270.2010.109
Zn-0.1910.091-0.063-0.256
As-0.063-0.0830.129-0.175
Pb0.028-0.1110.160-0.181
表4  PM2.5及重金属与气象因子相关性
图4  PM2.5重金属元素富集因子(以Fe为参比元素)
图5  PM2.5中重金属相关性
图6  重金属主成分分析结果
元素危险系数HQ终生增量致癌风险ILCR
成年男性成年女性儿童成年男性成年女性
V1.62×10-41.54×10-43.76×10-4
Cr1.40×10-11.33×10-13.25×10-16.97×10-56.21×10-5
Mn2.132.034.95
Co1.35×10-11.29×10-13.14×10-13.13×10-62.79×10-6
Ni6.43×10-56.12×10-51.50×10-44.61×10-74.11×10-7
Cu2.87×10-42.73×10-46.67×10-4
Zn2.67×10-42.54×10-46.21×10-4
As1.48×10-21.41×10-23.45×10-22.80×10-52.49×10-5
Pb8.31×10-37.91×10-31.93×10-2
表5  重金属非致癌暴露风险系数和致癌暴露风险值
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