中国沙漠 ›› 1982, Vol. 2 ›› Issue (2): 17-25.

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  1. 河南师范大学地理系
  • 出版日期:1982-06-20 发布日期:1982-06-20

Preliminary Analysis of the Sand-driving Wind in East Henan and North Henan

Ma Chengyuan   

  • Online:1982-06-20 Published:1982-06-20

摘要: 豫东、豫北平原土层深厚,地势开阔平坦,便于灌溉,是我国粮棉的重要产区。然而沙荒地广布,春旱风大,流沙常埋没农田,打伤禾苗,阻碍交通,威胁村镇。风沙长期危害着部分地区农业生产的稳定和发展。解放前兰考县有6个村庄被沙埋没,民权县有18个村庄被埋没,有28个村庄被风沙所逼累次南迁;商丘县小韩庄在20年内南迁三次,高大沙丘紧紧围住村庄,肥美的土地,被沙埋三分之二。以上实例足以说明解放前沙区群众饱受风沙之苦。解放后已基本改变了沙区面貌,农业生产逐步提高。但由于沙荒性质尚未彻底改变,加之不断受旱灾的影响,流沙活动对农业生产仍然危害很大。

Abstract: The sandy lands in east Henan and north Henan are under the effect of subhumid monsoon in the warm temperate zone.Their characteristics are as follows;(a)Fixed dunes and middle-and-small-sized dunes are predominant.(b)Most of the sand dunes are in the form of sand hills and sand ridges.(c)The belts of shifting dunes are parallelly gathering along both sides of the old course of Huang He.(d)According to the type of their origin,they belong to the "alluvial sandy lands along the river" as a result of dike breaches of floods of the river. From the economic point of view, sandy plains can be utilized. Their advantages are:(a)the diameter of sand grains is smaller; silt,fine sand and clay are widespread,(b)sandy lands have a certain foundation of fertility, the period of farming is longer in the general flat sandy lands, and the soil contains a little amount of humus or effective nutrients,(c)the sand dunes are low and easy to be transformed,(d)the underground is rich in fresh water,(e)the climate conditions are favorable,the annual mean temperature is 14°-15℃, the frost free season more than 200 days,the cumu-lative temperature at ≥ 10° about 457℃ and the mean rainfall 587 mm a year. The sandy districts in east Henan and north Henan are easy to be transformed, and they will become production bases of agriculture and forestry so long as they are fixed.The unfavorable factors are:(a)sand grains are so fine and light that they are easy to be blown up and eroded,(b) the windy season lasts from November till May next year; dry climate and deficiency of vegetation on the surface foment the mobilization of sand grains and cause damage to the young plants,(c)the spring dry is serious and(d)the sandy districts ofter suffer from waterlogging and alkalization. As to the relignment and transformation of the sandy lands,the principal measures adopted in recent years are(a) to afforest windbreak belts,(b) to fix sand dunes,(c) to afforest shelterbelts on farmland etc. After sand controlling, a series of changes in microclimate have taken place, thus the yield per unit area of farmland has been raised.