中国沙漠 ›› 1987, Vol. 7 ›› Issue (3): 1-15.

• 论文 •    下一篇



  • 出版日期:1987-09-20 发布日期:1987-09-20

A Preliminary Study on Sand Drift Activities and its Control in Beijing Area

Beijing Sand Drift Research Group of the Institute of Desert Research, Acade mia Sinica   

  • Online:1987-09-20 Published:1987-09-20

摘要: 根据两年来北京地区的野外风沙考察,半定位风沙(尘)观测,室内风洞实验以及有关区域资料的分析研究得出:风沙问题是北京区域环境存在的严重问题之一,区域风沙活动由来已久,在频繁程度上不亚于半干旱区的河北坝上和乌盟后山地区。区内各地风沙活动均以春季为主,冬春两季风沙活动约占全年的80%以上。风沙天气的年际变化较大,五十年代最为频繁,六十年代最少,七十年代初期又有回升,中期以后至八十年代中期又逐渐趋于减少。风沙活动的形成及其盛衰变化,除与自然因素有关外,还与地表植被和土壤结构等因人类活动所造成的变化息息相关。风沙活动不仅使大气遭受污染,而且使土地资源遭受破坏。全区风沙危害严重的区域(风沙区)面积达342万亩,约占平原区总面积的35.6%,其中沙质地表因长期遭受风力作用所形成的风沙化土地面积约为136万余亩,占平原区面积的14.2%,以永定河冲积平原分布面积最大。研究证明,北京地区风沙主要来源于本地,系就地起沙。因此,风沙防治要立足于本地,特别是风沙土地的治理,对根治本区风沙危害、改善首都环境具有根本性意义。

Abstract: Based on two-year field survey of the sand drift,semi-fixed site observation,wind tunnel experiments and analytic research of the related regional information, it has reached the following conclusions:The problem on the sand drift belongs to one of the most serious ones on Beijing regional environment. Its frequency is no less than that of Bashang Area in Hebei Province and Houshan area in the Nei Mongol both of these two areas are located in semi-arid zone. It is in spring that such sand drift activities are found every where. The days with sand blowing in winter and spring occupy more than 80% of the yearly sand drift activities. The weather influenced by sand drift varies greatly from year to year,for example,it was most frequent in 1950s and least in 1960s, and there was a rise in early 1970s, and gradually decreased from the mid-1970s to the mid-1980s, Besides the natural foctors, the formation of sand drift activities and their increase or decrease are closely related to the variations of vegetations, soil texture and other factors caused by human activities.The sand drift activities not only pollute the atmosphere but also destroy land resource,the area seriously destroyed by sand-blowing goes up to 228000 ha, accounting for 35.6% of the total plain area, of which sandy ground surface covers an area of 90700 ha,, making up 14.2% of the total plain area, the largest distributive area is in alluvial plain of the Yongding River.Our study has proved that the sands in Beijing Region originate mainly from local places,i. e, "local origin".Therefore, the control of sand drift should be focused upon the local region,especially, the rehabilitation of the desertified lands has radically significance both in eliminating sand drift damages and improving our capital environment.