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中国沙漠  1990, Vol. 10 Issue (2): 9-19    
论文     
塔克拉玛干沙漠的气候特征及其变化趋势
凌裕泉
中国科学院兰州沙漠研究所
The Climatic Characteristics and Its Changing Tendency in the Taklimakan Desert
Ling Yuquan
Institute of Desert Research,Academia Sinica,Lanzhou,China
 全文: PDF(762 KB)  
摘要: 通过对短期的野外考察资料和历年气象记录与树木年轮的资料分析结果表明:塔克拉玛干沙漠气候实质上是盆地气候与沙漠气候的综合体-极端干旱的大陆性气候。主要特征有:冷热剧变,干旱少雨,降水少而集中,变率大,风沙活动频繁等。事实证明:极端干旱的大陆性气候也有冷和暖、干和湿的相对变化;这种变化过程具有波动特征,而不是沿着一个方向持续发展的,其变化速度是缓慢的,强度也是微弱的,并不能从根本上改变极端干旱的大陆性气候的基本特征。沙漠南缘近200年来,气候有变干、变暖的变化趋势。
Abstract: The climate of the Taklimakan Desert is in fact the complex of the basin and desert climate-extreme dry continental climate.It is characterized by violent change between cold and heat, less but concentrative precipitation, great variability, frequent winds and severe sand storms.It has been proved that extreme dry continental climate also brought out relative changes,such as cold and warm,dry and humid.Such changes do not always point to just one direction and cannot change the basic features of the extreme dry continental climate.Finally,there has also been a trend turned to drier and warmer in the southern edge of the desert over the last 200 years.Climatic change at the Keriya River drainage in the past 200 years: Fig.5 clearly indicates that in 202 years from 1785 to 1986,the average growth temperature for Popular Diversifolia is 19.66°C.However,in 21 years from 1960 to 1980,the average growth temperature is 20.71°C,an increase of 1.05°C.This signifies a trend towards warmer climate.The curve also tells us that despite of the small fluctuations,temperature is on the rise.Four periods can be roughly defined: 1785-1848-the growth temperature is below the average value about 1°C in 1820; 1848-1907:a temperature-rising period,the greatest increase being0.9°C; 1907-1939:there was a drop of temperatue,the maximum value being 0.5°C.1939-1986:again there was an increase in temperatue,maximum value being 1.5°C.Although the rise of temperature has been slowing down,no drop is expected in the next 30 to 40 years.Dryness and humidity characteristics In 75 years from 1790 to 1846,there was abundant rain,being nearly 50mm over or double the average value.During the succeeding 20 years from 1864 to 1883,precipitation levels off the average.From 1883 up to present,it has gradually come under average.Althought there were periodical fluctuations, the general trends seem to direct toward a drier climate.The last thirty years has witnessed a decrease of precipitation,the average being 13.59mm less than the past.In addition,the curve of annual runoff at the Keriya River also points to similar conclusions,that during the 142 years from 1734 to 1875 annual runoff averages above or close to tne histovical average, but from 1875 onwards, it has come under the average, a fact in keeping with the reduction of precipitation and consolidates our proposition that the climate is turning drier.
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凌裕泉

引用本文:

凌裕泉. 塔克拉玛干沙漠的气候特征及其变化趋势[J]. 中国沙漠, 1990, 10(2): 9-19.

Ling Yuquan. The Climatic Characteristics and Its Changing Tendency in the Taklimakan Desert. JOURNAL OF DESERT RESEARCH, 1990, 10(2): 9-19.

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http://119.78.100.150:82/zgsm/CN/        http://119.78.100.150:82/zgsm/CN/Y1990/V10/I2/9

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