中国沙漠 ›› 2020, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (1): 1-11.DOI: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-694X.2019.00022

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蔡东旭1,2, 李生宇1, 王海峰1, 俞祥祥1, 王世杰1, 徐新文1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所 国家荒漠-绿洲生态建设工程技术研究中心, 新疆 乌鲁木齐 830011;
    2. 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2018-12-18 修回日期:2019-02-17 出版日期:2020-01-20 发布日期:2020-01-18
  • 通讯作者: 李生宇,
  • 作者简介:蔡东旭(1989-),男,甘肃天水人,硕士研究生,主要从事风沙地貌与荒漠化防治研究。
  • 基金资助:

Aeolian hazard and comprehensive protection of S214 highway in Taitema Playa, Xinjiang, China

Cai Dongxu1,2, Li Shengyu1, Wang Haifeng1, Yu Xiangxiang1, Wang Shijie1, Xu Xinwen1   

  1. 1. National Desert-Oasis Ecological Construction Engineering Technology Research Center, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011, China;
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2018-12-18 Revised:2019-02-17 Online:2020-01-20 Published:2020-01-18

摘要: 新疆S214(考干-米兰,考米线)公路位于库鲁克塔格沙漠东南缘,穿越台特玛湖干涸湖盆。由于该区气候干旱,风力强劲,沙源丰富,流动沙丘广布且快速移动,风沙危害对公路运输构成严重威胁。通过对风沙环境和风沙危害定位观测和土壤水盐特征系统调查,确定了风沙危害极为严重的公路区段,提出了合理的风沙防护措施及防沙体系结构。结果表明:该区具有明显的单风向风况,主要盛行ENE和NE风,偶有反向风沙活动,起沙风频率、输沙势、输沙率极高,属于高能-大比率风能环境;受土壤水分、盐分含量影响,地表紧实度差异较大,部分地段为极疏松的沙层,部分地段为紧实的盐壳;S214公路风沙危害防护区段为K4+900~K18+200,设计建造的阻-固-输相结合的机械-植物复合防沙体系,防沙效果明显,保障了道路安全运营。这一强风沙、高盐区公路防沙体系建设模式可为类似环境地区工程防沙提供借鉴。

关键词: 干涸湖盆, 极端环境, 风沙危害, 风动力特征, 防沙体系

Abstract: The S214 Highway, also called as the Kaomi Highway, was on the southeastern edge of the Kuluktag Desert in Xinjiang and passed though the Taitema playa. This region was dry, with strong wind and the supply of plentiful sand. Besides, the moving dunes were widely distributed and moved fast. Therefore, the blown-sand disasters caused a serious threat to highway transportation. In this paper, through the fixed location observation of the wind-sand disaster and the quantificational analysis of soil water and salinity in this region, the stretches of road where damaged extremely serious by blown-sand disasters were ascertained. Based on this, the feasible sandstorm protection measures and shelterbelts were proposed to combat the wind-sand disaster. The results showed that the sandy desertification zone had obvious single wind direction (ENE and NE), and also had occasional reverse sand activity. This region had extremely high frequency of sand-driving wind, sand transporting capacity and sediment transport rate. Therefore, this region belonged to high energy-large ratio wind energy environment. The content of soil moisture and salt increased from the sandy desertification zone to the desert-oasis ecotones. Some areas were extremely loose sand layers, and some areas were tight salt shells. It was determined that the section from K4+900 to K18+200 was a sandstorm hazard protection zone. Combined with the resistance-solid-transmission design, the mechanical-plant composite sand control system had obvious anti-sand effect and ensured the safe transportation of the road. In the end, the construction mode of blown-sand control system of highway in this area with strong wind and high salt could provide reference for sand control in similar environmental areas.

Key words: Taitema playa, extreme environment, sand-blown hazard, wind dynamic characteristics, comprehensive sand control system