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中国沙漠  2020, Vol. 40 Issue (5): 101-111    DOI: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-694X.2020.00054
    
浑善达克沙地土地沙漠化研究进展
赵媛媛a2(),武海岩a,丁国栋a2(),高广磊a2,屠文竹a
1.北京林业大学,水土保持学院/水土保持国家林业局重点实验室,北京 100083
2.北京林业大学,宁夏盐池毛乌素沙地生态系统国家定位观测研究站,北京 100083
A review on the aeolian desertification in the Otindag Sandy Land
Yuanyuan Zhaoa2(),Haiyan Wua,Guodong Dinga2(),Guanglei Gaoa2,Wenzhu Tua
a.School of Soil and Water Conservation / Key Laboratory of State Forestry Administration on Soil and Water Conservation / b. Yanchi Research Station in the Mu Us Desert,Beijing Forestry University,Beijing 100083,China
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摘要:

浑善达克沙地是中国沙漠化最严重的地区之一。本文从土地沙漠化过程及驱动力、沙漠化的生态环境影响、沙漠化防治与资源的可持续利用等方面总结了20世纪80年代以来浑善达克沙地土地沙漠化相关研究的指标、方法和主要发现,并展望了进一步研究的方向。在浑善达克沙地开展的土地沙漠化相关研究于2003年以后突变式增加。20世纪80年代末期到2000年是区域沙漠化的快速发展期,之后植被得到有效恢复,沙漠化减缓。气候变化是触发区域沙漠化的关键自然因子,而过度放牧和植被建设是区域沙漠化发展或逆转的直接人为主导因素。土地沙漠化是浑善达克沙地及周边地区沙尘天气频发的主要诱因,也影响了牧草供给、侵蚀控制等多种生态系统服务。固沙植被的生理特征、不同治沙模式和技术的效益评估等研究为防沙治沙提供了理论支撑。未来研究需进一步聚焦国家需求,准确提炼科学问题,丰富研究尺度和科学方法,以正确认识复杂的沙漠化过程,为沙漠化土地的可持续利用提供科学支撑。

关键词: 浑善达克沙地土地沙漠化生态环境效应沙漠化防治可持续发展    
Abstract:

The Otindag Sandy Land is reported to be one of the most seriously desertified areas in China. In this paper, we reviewed 220 published peer-reviewed studies conducted in the Otindag Sandy Land since 1980s and discussed existing shortcomings and challenges. Indicators, major methods and key finding were summarized from three aspects including the aeolian desertification and its driving forces, the eco-environmental impacts, and the sustainable use of desertified lands in the Otindag Sandy Land. The number of related papers increased abruptly from 2003. Results indicated that the aeolian desertification of the Otindag Sandy Land intensified from late 1980s to 2000, but showed a reverse trend after 2000. Climate change is the key factor triggering regional desertification. Overgrazing and vegetation construction are the direct and dominant human factors for the expanding or shrinking of the desertified lands. The aeolian desertification had impacts on dust weather and various ecosystem services such as forage provision, erosion control. Studies on plant adaptability and evaluations of desertification control technology provided theory support for local desertification combating. Future research needs to further focus on government’s needs to accurately propose scientific questions, enrich research scales and scientific methods, in order to correctly understand the complex desertification process, and to provide scientific support for the sustainable use of desertified lands in drylands.

Key words: the Otindag Sandy Land    aeolian desertification    eco-environmental effects    desertification combating    sustainable development
收稿日期: 2020-02-15 出版日期: 2020-09-28
ZTFLH:  X144  
基金资助: 国家自然科学基金项目(41971130);中央引导地方科技发展项目“浑善达克沙地生态文化产业关键技术研究与示范”
通讯作者: 丁国栋     E-mail: yuanyuan0402@bjfu.edu.cn;dch1999@263.net
作者简介: 赵媛媛(1985—),女,山东人,博士,副教授,主要从事荒漠化防治相关研究。E-mail: yuanyuan0402@bjfu.edu.cn
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引用本文:

赵媛媛,武海岩,丁国栋,高广磊,屠文竹. 浑善达克沙地土地沙漠化研究进展[J]. 中国沙漠, 2020, 40(5): 101-111.

Yuanyuan Zhao,Haiyan Wu,Guodong Ding,Guanglei Gao,Wenzhu Tu. A review on the aeolian desertification in the Otindag Sandy Land. Journal of Desert Research, 2020, 40(5): 101-111.

链接本文:

http://www.desert.ac.cn/CN/10.7522/j.issn.1000-694X.2020.00054        http://www.desert.ac.cn/CN/Y2020/V40/I5/101

图1  浑善达克沙地土地沙漠化研究论文数量变化
图2  浑善达克沙地土地沙漠化研究单词云
时间尺度监测指标常用数据方法代表性研究

地质历史

时间尺度

地层土样理化性质地面调查数据、历史资料沉积学、年代学李森等[28];Yang等[5];杨小平等[26]

10~50 a

尺度

景观面积(草地、农田、林地、固定沙丘、半固定沙丘、流动沙丘等)Landsat TM/ETM+/、SPOT遥感影像解译、地面调查董建林 [31];王牧兰等 [32];Wang等[33];刘树林等[34];Liu等[35]
植被特征(植被盖度、净初级生产力等)NDVI/NPP(MODIS, TM/ETM+/OLI)、MODIS 地表反照率(Albedo)和叶面积(LAI)指数产品(MCD43A3, MCK15A2H)分级法(根据植被盖度划分沙漠化程度)武健伟等[16]
一元线性回归分析、Mann-Kendall检验、Sen’s slopeLi等[36];Zhou等[1];元志辉等[4,18];Sun等[37]

沙漠化指数(DI)法

DI=1-NDVI

DI=f(LAI,?Albedo)

朱震达等[38]

李春兰等[39];武洁等 [40];Gou等[41]

土壤颗粒组成和理化性质地面土壤调查、BJ-1多光谱影像;统计模型刘树林等[42];Wu等[43]
风蚀坑形态和面积高分辨率遥感影像(ALOS、 Quickbird等)遥感影像解译、地面调查胡尔查等[44];闫德仁[45];胡日娜等[46]
表1  浑善达克沙地土地沙漠化过程研究典型案例
图3  气候变化和人类活动对土地沙漠化的影响
图4  浑善达克沙地1955—2015年气候因子变化
图5  浑善达克沙地腹地正蓝旗主要人类活动
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