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中国沙漠  2020, Vol. 40 Issue (4): 34-42    DOI: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-694X.2020.00026
    
巴丹吉林沙漠牧户生计策略转型及其对生态环境的影响
赵春彦(),司建华(),冯起,罗欢,秦洁
中国科学院西北生态环境资源研究院 内陆河流域生态水文重点实验室, 甘肃 兰州 730000
Transformation of livelihood strategy for herdsman in Badain Jaran Desert and its impact on ecological environment
Chunyan Zhao(),Jianhua Si(),Qi Feng,Huan Luo,Jie Qin
Key Laboratory of Ecohydrology of Inland River Basin, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China
 全文: PDF(2307 KB)   HTML
摘要:

生计策略是居民为了追求和改善生计目标,基于生计资本进行的活动。生计策略与生态环境间的相互作用对人地系统演化起着至关重要的作用。研究了自然资源贫乏、交通极其不便、生态环境非常脆弱的巴丹吉林沙漠牧户生计策略转型及其对生态环境的影响。结果表明:巴丹吉林沙漠牧户生计资本值差异较大,其中社会资本最低(0.1344),金融资本最高(0.4528);巴丹吉林沙漠牧户的生计策略可划分为纯牧型、牧兼型、兼牧型和非牧型;巴丹吉林沙漠牧户的生计策略出现了明显转型,纯牧型和兼牧型户数明显下降,兼牧型和非牧型户数明显增加;不同时期影响生计策略转型的关键生计资本不同,但金融资本、人力资本、社会资本始终是影响巴丹吉林沙漠牧户生计策略转型的重要因素;巴丹吉林沙漠牧户生计策略转型对生态环境影响显著,植被覆盖度明显上升,但牧户生计策略转型后,牧家游迅速崛起,游客自驾车对沙漠植被破坏严重且沙漠垃圾明显增多。

关键词: 生计资本生计策略转型生态环境巴丹吉林沙漠    
Abstract:

Livelihood strategy is an activity based on livelihood capital for people to pursue and improve their livelihood goals, and the interaction between livelihood strategy and ecological environment plays an important role in the evolution of human land system. This paper studies the transformation of herdsmen's livelihood strategy and its impact on the ecological environment in Badain Jaran Desert, which has poor natural resources, inconvenient transportation and fragile ecological environment. The results show that there is a significant difference in the livelihood capital value of herdsmen in Badain Jaran Desert, the lowest is social capital (0.1344) and the highest is financial capital (0.4528). The livelihood strategies of herdsmen in Badain Jaran Desert can be divided into pure grazing strategies, grazing-dominant strategies, non-grazing-dominant strategies, and non-grazing strategies. The livelihood strategies of herdsmen in Badain Jaran Desert have undergone a significant transformation, and the number of pure grazing strategies and grazing-dominant strategies have decreased significantly, the non-grazing-dominant strategies, and non-grazing strategies have increased significantly. The key livelihood capital influencing the transformation of livelihood strategy was different in different periods, but financial basis, human capital and social capital were always important factors influencing the transformation of livelihood strategy of herdsmen in Badain Jaran Desert. The transformation of livelihood strategy for herdsmen in Badain Jaran Desert had significant impact on ecological environment, and vegetation coverage increased significantly. But the transformation of livelihood strategy caused the nomadic tourism risen rapidly, and the self-driving travel has seriously damaged the desert vegetation and increased the amount of desert garbage.

Key words: livelihood capital    livelihood strategy transformation    ecological environment    Badain Jaran Desert
收稿日期: 2019-12-23 出版日期: 2020-09-01
ZTFLH:  F328  
基金资助: 内蒙古自治区科技重大专项(zdzx2018057)
通讯作者: 司建华     E-mail: zhaochunyan627@163.com;jianhuas@lzb.ac.cn
作者简介: 赵春彦(1988—),女,甘肃天水人,助理研究员,主要从事干旱区生态水文研究。E-mail: zhaochunyan627@163.com
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引用本文:

赵春彦,司建华,冯起,罗欢,秦洁. 巴丹吉林沙漠牧户生计策略转型及其对生态环境的影响[J]. 中国沙漠, 2020, 40(4): 34-42.

Chunyan Zhao,Jianhua Si,Qi Feng,Huan Luo,Jie Qin. Transformation of livelihood strategy for herdsman in Badain Jaran Desert and its impact on ecological environment. Journal of Desert Research, 2020, 40(4): 34-42.

链接本文:

http://www.desert.ac.cn/CN/10.7522/j.issn.1000-694X.2020.00026        http://www.desert.ac.cn/CN/Y2020/V40/I4/34

图1  研究区及调查点
生计资本测算指标符号权重
自然资本人均草场面积/hm2N10.521
草场相对质量(好1,一般0.5,坏0)N20.145
人均湖泊面积/hm2N30.334
物质资本牲畜数量/头M10.475
固定资产价值/万元M20.303
人均住房面积/m2M30.222
人力资本家庭成员年龄H10.201
家庭劳动力(非劳动力0,半劳动力0.5,全劳动力1)H20.275
家庭成员受教育年限(文盲为0,9年以下为0.5,9年以上为1)H30.293
家庭成员健康状况(良好为1,一般为0.5,差为0)H40.231
金融资本家庭劳动收入/万元F10.382
政府补贴收入/万元F20.245
家庭借贷能力(有1,无0)F30.373
社会资本家中有无干部(有1,无0)S10.368
可能提供援助的亲友数(大于5人1, 2~5人0.5,小于2人0)S20.632
表1  巴丹吉林沙漠牧户生计资本测算指标
图2  巴丹吉林沙漠牧户五类生计资本
图3  巴丹吉林沙漠牧户的生计策略
图4  巴丹吉林沙漠牧户的生计策略的转型
生计资本自然资本物质资本人力资本金融资本社会资本
牧兼型B-0.629-0.1152.366**0.1034.532***
SD0.3020.0821.0270.0921.623
Wald4.3381.9675.301.2537.797
EXP(B)0.5330.89110.6551.10892.944
兼牧型B-1.224-0.7355.028***3.019**1.228
SD0.2250.3031.2541.1990.328
Wald29.5945.88416.0776.34014.017
EXP(B)0.2940.480152.62720.4713.414
非牧型B-1.2490.2931.2844.932***3.71**
SD1.9021.0370.4821.2351.155
Wald0.4310.0807.09615.94810.318
EXP(B)0.2861.3403.611138.65740.854
表2  巴丹吉林沙漠牧户生计资本与生计策略选择的多项Logistic 回归分析
图5  巴丹吉林沙漠牲畜数量和植被覆盖度的变化
图6  巴丹吉林沙漠自驾车对植被的影响程度调查结果
图7  巴丹吉林沙漠垃圾数量调查结果
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