中国沙漠 ›› 2017, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (6): 1189-1195.DOI: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-694X.2017.00083

• 生物与土壤 • 上一篇    下一篇


张勇勇1, 富利2, 赵文智1, 闫加亮3   

  1. 1. 中国科学院西北生态环境资源研究院 临泽内陆河流域研究站/内陆河流域生态水文重点实验室, 甘肃 兰州 730000;
    2. 西北师范大学 地理与环境科学学院, 甘肃 兰州 730070;
    3. 太原师范学院 地理科学学院, 山西 晋中 030619
  • 收稿日期:2017-07-14 修回日期:2017-09-08 出版日期:2017-11-20 发布日期:2017-11-20
  • 作者简介:张勇勇(1986-),男,陕西旬邑人,副研究员,博士,主要从事荒漠绿洲土壤物理与水文过程研究。
  • 基金资助:

A Review of Researches on Preferential Flow in Desert-oasis Region

Zhang Yongyong1, Fu Li2, Zhao Wenzhi1, Yan Jialiang3   

  1. 1. Linze Inland River Basin Research Station/Key Laboratory of Inland River Basin Ecohydrology, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China;
    2. College of Geography and Environment Science, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730000, China;
    3. School of Geography Science, Taiyuan Normal University, Jinzhog 030619, Shanxi, China
  • Received:2017-07-14 Revised:2017-09-08 Online:2017-11-20 Published:2017-11-20

摘要: 荒漠绿洲土壤受干湿交替、冻融作用和土壤特性等非生物因素和动物洞穴、植物根系生物因素影响,存在大孔隙。水分和溶质优先沿着相互连通的大孔隙快速补充到土壤深层或浅层地下水,引起绿洲农田水分、养分损失;大孔隙存在,增强了土壤通气性,促进农田地力提升。荒漠绿洲土壤优先流的发生,减少地表径流及其侵蚀,促进水分入渗,影响着干旱区植被恢复和地下水补给。重点分析影响荒漠绿洲土壤优先流的非生物和生物因素,综述优先流对该区土壤性质和水文要素的影响。未来该区研究应重视以下几个方面:(1)加强大孔隙三维空间构型的研究,分析大孔隙结构与土壤优先流发生的内在机制;(2)开展不同景观类型土壤优先流的野外监测,认识土壤优先流的运动规律,揭示荒漠绿洲土壤优先流与植被互馈机制;(3)发展并构建荒漠绿洲土壤优先流运动的动力学模型。

关键词: 荒漠绿洲, 优先流, 大孔隙, 土壤水分运动

Abstract: Soil macropores are formed under the joint effect of abiotic factors (wetting and drying alternation, freezing and thawing processes, and soil properties, etc.) and biotic factors (soil fauna burrows, plant root channels) in desert-oasis region. As they may act as pathways for preferential flow, water and solute migrate rapidly along preferential pathways to shallow groundwater, which enhance the risks of water and nutrient loss. The presence of soil macropores also enhances soil ventilation, promotes nutrient cycling, and improves soil fertility. Preferential flow occurrence reduces surface runoff and its erosion, promotes water infiltration, and affects vegetation restoration and groundwater recharge. This paper analyzes the generated causes of preferential flow and its effect on pedologic and hydrological processes in desert-oasis ecosystems. Combined with the current research progress, the research emphases in the future are put forward as follows: (1) more efforts should be dedicated to conducting in situ field study of soil macropore networks and its effect on preferential flow;(2)Field experiments are conducted to analyze preferential flow movement in different landscapes and to reveal the interaction mechanism of preferential flow and vegetation;(3)the model is developed to simulate the movement of preferential flow in desert-oasis region.

Key words: desert-oasis region, preferential flow, soil macropores, soil water movement