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中国沙漠  2020, Vol. 40 Issue (4): 10-17    DOI: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-694X.2020.00012
    
柴达木盆地北缘湖泊表层沉积物炭屑特征及其环境意义
王梓莎1,2(), 苗运法1,2(), 赵永涛1, 李芳1, 雷艳1,2, 向明星1,2, 邹亚国1,2
1.中国科学院西北生态环境资源研究院 沙漠与沙漠化重点实验室,甘肃 兰州 730000
2.中国科学院大学,北京 100049
Characteristics of microcharcoal in the lake surface sediments in the northern margin of Qaidam Basin of China and its environmental significance
Zisha Wang1,2(), Yunfa Miao1,2(), Yongtao Zhao1, Fang Li1, Yan Lei1,2, Mingxing Xiang1,2, Yaguo Zou1,2
1.Key Laboratory of Desert and Desertification, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China
2.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
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摘要:

沉积物中的炭屑在探讨火(灾)的基本特征及其与植被和人类活动关系方面具有重要意义。采用孢粉学提取方法,对柴达木盆地北缘的湖泊表层沉积物进行了微体炭屑的分析工作,用以探讨其空间分布及其与区域植被和现代人类活动之间的关系。结果表明:不同粒径的炭屑浓度均呈现出自西向东升高的趋势,与区域植被覆盖度自西向东增加的趋势一致。其中,小粒径的炭屑以近圆形占多数,表明区域性火事件中燃烧的木本植被占主导地位;粒径较大的长条形炭屑在盆地东部区域占优势,表明地方性火事件向东增加,草本植物燃烧逐渐增多,与自西向东草本植物的增多相吻合,且燃烧由区域向近源转换。此外,该地区人口数量也有自西向东增加的趋势,推测人类生产生活用火对炭屑浓度有很大的贡献量,与大颗粒炭屑浓度向东升高有较好的对应关系。表层沉积物炭屑的空间变化特征不仅很好地反映了相应地区的火的信息,还对区域植被和人类活动等要素具有较好的指示意义。

关键词: 柴达木盆地炭屑表层沉积物火(灾)植被人类活动    
Abstract:

Microcharcoal in the surface sediments is of great significance in exploring the basic characteristics of fire and its relationship with vegetation and human activities. Here we analyzed the microcharcoal extracted with the pollen methodology from the surface sediments of lakes in the northern margin of Qaidam Basin to explore its spatial distribution and relationship with regional vegetation and modern human activities. Results showed that the microcharcoal concentration of different grain-size groups has a similarity trend of increasing from northwest to northeast of the basin, which can be coupled with the trend of increasing regional vegetation coverage from west to east. The microcharcoals with the small grain-size (<50 μm) are mostly in the shape of sub-round, which indicates that there is more woody vegetation burning in fires with longer distances. And the sub-long grains microcharcoal with large grain size (>50 μm) is dominant, indicating that the burning of herbaceous plants increased gradually to the east, which consistent with the distribution of herbaceous plants, and the distance from the fire to the sedimentary area of microcharcoal is reduced. Additionally, the population of this area also has a tendency to increase from west to east. Human activities also have a certain impact on the microcharcoal concentration, our analyses show that the microcharcoal concentration has a good correspondence with the population density. Therefore, the spatial variation characteristics of microchacoal in surface sediments not only reflect the fire information of the corresponding areas but also have a good indication for regional vegetation and human activities.

Key words: Qaidam Basin    microcharcoal    surface sediments    fire    vegetation    human activities
收稿日期: 2019-10-30 出版日期: 2020-09-01
:  Q944.571  
基金资助: 中国科学院“西部之光”人才培养计划项目;国家自然科学基金项目(41772181);甘肃省自然科学基金项目(18JR3RA395);国家“万人计划”青年拔尖人才项目和中国科学院青年创新促进会优秀会员项目
通讯作者: 苗运法     E-mail: wzsbgyx@163.com;yunfine2000@sina.com
作者简介: 苗运法 (E-mail: yunfine2000@sina.com)
王梓莎(1996—),女,河北人,硕士研究生,研究方向为自然地理学与孢粉学。E-mail: wzsbgyx@163.com
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引用本文:

王梓莎, 苗运法, 赵永涛, 李芳, 雷艳, 向明星, 邹亚国. 柴达木盆地北缘湖泊表层沉积物炭屑特征及其环境意义[J]. 中国沙漠, 2020, 40(4): 10-17.

Zisha Wang, Yunfa Miao, Yongtao Zhao, Fang Li, Yan Lei, Mingxing Xiang, Yaguo Zou. Characteristics of microcharcoal in the lake surface sediments in the northern margin of Qaidam Basin of China and its environmental significance. Journal of Desert Research, 2020, 40(4): 10-17.

链接本文:

http://www.desert.ac.cn/CN/10.7522/j.issn.1000-694X.2020.00012        http://www.desert.ac.cn/CN/Y2020/V40/I4/10

图1  采样点位置及植被类型图(数据来源于国家自然科学基金委“中国西部环境与生态科学数据中心”http://westdc.westgis.ac.cn)
采样点编码采样点位置所属植被区主要植被
SGH苏干湖北部中、低山山间盆地荒漠植被地区优势种:超旱生的驼绒藜、中麻黄、木霸王、红沙、蒿叶猪毛菜、蒿子等;少量柽柳、芦苇
GQH高泉湖
DZMH德宗马海湖
DCD大柴旦湖
XCD小柴旦湖
TSH托素湖
GH尕海东部荒漠草原植被地区优势种:短花针茅、芨芨草、沙生针茅、密穗野青茅、冰草、普氏苔藓、红沙、西伯利亚白刺、唐古特白刺、早熟禾、紫花苜蓿、草木樨、赖草等;以及祁连圆柏、粗叶云杉、青杨等
KKH柯柯湖
CKYH茶卡盐湖
表1  采样点情况[24]
图2  光学显微镜下炭屑、石松孢子和有机质
图3  扫描电镜下的炭屑及能谱分析A:扫描电镜下的炭屑;B:该图像碳元素面分布图像,越红代表碳元素含量越高;C:该炭屑能谱图,打点位置见A,其中Au源于镀金涂膜
图4  炭屑浓度变化
图5  炭屑“大小比”和“长圆比”
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