Please wait a minute...
img

官方微信

高级检索
中国沙漠  2019, Vol. 39 Issue (6): 151-158    DOI: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-694X.2019.00013
    
生物土壤结皮对温带荒漠植物凋落物分解的影响
张瑞1,2, 周晓兵1, 张元明1
1. 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所 干旱区生物地理与生物资源重点实验室, 新疆 乌鲁木齐 830011;
2. 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
Affects of Biological Soil Crusts on Litter Decomposition in the Gurbantunggut Desert
Zhang Rui1,2, Zhou Xiaobing1, Zhang Yuanming1
1. Key Laboratory of Biogeography and Bioresource in Arid Land, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011, China;
2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
 全文: PDF(875 KB)  
摘要: 环境和微生物群落的变化会影响凋落物的分解过程。生物土壤结皮是干旱荒漠区地表普遍存在的生物覆盖,对土壤物理化学性质有显著影响,但对于是否影响荒漠植物凋落物分解缺乏深入了解。选择8种在古尔班通古特沙漠广泛分布的荒漠植物(白梭梭Haloxylon persicum、梭梭Haloxylon ammondendron、黑沙蒿Artemisia ordosica、粉苞菊Chondrilla piptocoma、羽毛针禾Aristida pennata、刺沙蓬Salsola ruthenica、紫翅猪毛菜Salsola affinis、钩刺雾冰藜Bassia hyssopifolia),分析生物土壤结皮覆盖对这8种凋落物质量损失率和分解速率的影响。结果表明:生物土壤结皮和植物种对凋落物质量损失率有极显著影响(P<0.01),生物土壤结皮的存在增大了荒漠植物凋落物质量损失率,不同物种的分解率差异显著。8种植物凋落物的质量损失率在结皮覆盖条件下为13.67%~64.56%,去除结皮处理下为13.58%~54.13%。其中,结皮覆盖条件下白梭梭、梭梭、紫翅猪毛菜的质量损失率(46.12%、41.26%、64.56%)显著高于去除结皮处理(35.85%、36.97%、54.13%,P<0.05)。生物土壤结皮的存在缩短了凋落物的半分解和95%分解时间,缩短长度随物种差异而不同,受凋落物的初始全碳和全氮含量调节。荒漠地表生物土壤结皮对植物凋落物分解具有促进作用,且这种作用具有显著的种间差异,地表生物土壤结皮的存在对初始全碳含量较低而全氮含量较高的凋落物促进作用更明显。
关键词: 生物土壤结皮荒漠植物凋落物分解古尔班通古特沙漠    
Abstract: Environment and biota are two dominant factors to affect litter decomposition, and changes in microenvironment and microbial community can influence the process of litter decomposition. Biological Soil Crusts (BSCs) are common in arid land, and are important biological cover on desert surface. BSCs can deeply affect the soil physicochemical characteristics. However, whether BSCs presence affects litter decomposition need to be further studied. In this study, 8 widespread plant species in Gurbantunggut Desert were selected, such as Haloxylon persicum, Haloxylon ammondendron, Artemisia ordosica, Chondrilla piptocoma, Aristida pennata, Salsola ruthenica, Salsola affinis and Bassia hyssopifolia. We examined the effects of soil surface with and without BSCs on mass loss rates and decopomsition rates of 8 species with litter bag methods. We put litters of the 8 species on desert surface (with and without BSCs) for 280 days. Our results show that both BSCs and species had significant effects (P<0.01) on litter decomposition. The litter mass loss rate was 13.67%-64.56% for soil surface covered by BSCs and 13.58%-54.13% for removing BSCs. The presence of BSCs on soil surface reduced the time period of decomposition (semi and 95% decomposition time) and the magnitudes were different among species. The effects of BSCs on litter decomposition were mediated by initial contents in litters. Our results indicate that BSCs can accelerate litter decomposition and the effects were different with changes in species.
Key words: biological soil crusts    desert plants    litter decomposition    Gurbantunggut Desert
收稿日期: 2019-02-01 出版日期: 2019-11-14
ZTFLH:  Q948.11  
基金资助: 国家自然科学基金项目(41571256);新疆维吾尔自治区天山创新团队项目(2018D14009)
通讯作者: 张元明(E-mail:zhangym@ms.xjb.ac.cn)     E-mail: zhangym@ms.xjb.ac.cn
作者简介: 张瑞(1994-),女,新疆人,硕士研究生,主要从事荒漠植物凋落物分解的研究。E-mail:zhang.rui.1226@foxmail.com
服务  
把本文推荐给朋友
加入引用管理器
E-mail Alert
RSS
作者相关文章  
张瑞
周晓兵
张元明

引用本文:

张瑞, 周晓兵, 张元明. 生物土壤结皮对温带荒漠植物凋落物分解的影响[J]. 中国沙漠, 2019, 39(6): 151-158.

Zhang Rui, Zhou Xiaobing, Zhang Yuanming. Affects of Biological Soil Crusts on Litter Decomposition in the Gurbantunggut Desert. Journal of Desert Research, 2019, 39(6): 151-158.

链接本文:

http://www.desert.ac.cn/CN/10.7522/j.issn.1000-694X.2019.00013        http://www.desert.ac.cn/CN/Y2019/V39/I6/151

[1] Moretto A S,Distel R A,Didoné N G.Decomposition and nutrient dynamic of leaf litter and roots from palatable and unpalatable grasses in a semi-arid grassland[J].Applied Soil Ecology,2001,18(1):30-37.
[2] Wickings K,Grandy A S,Reed S,et al.Management intensity alters decomposition via biological pathways[J].Biogeochemistry (Dordrecht),2011,104(1/2/3):365-379.
[3] Fujii S,Takeda H.Succession of collembolan communities during decomposition of leaf and root litter:effects of litter type and position[J].Soil Biology & Biochemistry,2012,54:77-85.
[4] Aerts R.Climate,leaf litter chemical and leaf litter decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems:a triangular relationship[J].Oikos,1997,79(3):439-449.
[5] 王新源,李玉霖,连杰,等.环境因素对干旱半干旱区凋落物分解的影响研究进展[J].应用生态学报,2013,24(11):3300-3310.
[6] 彭少麟,刘强.森林凋落物动态及其对全球变暖的响应[J].生态学报,2002,22(9):1534-1544.
[7] Harte S J.Control of litter decomposition in a subalpine meadow-sagebrush steppe ecotone under climate change[J].Ecological Applications,2001,11(4):1206-1223.
[8] 王苗苗,侯扶江.草地凋落物分解的主要影响因素[J].草业科学,2012,29(10):1631-1367.
[9] 白永飞,李凌浩,李鑫,等.模拟气候变化对3种草原植物群落混合凋落物分解的影响[J].植物生态学报,2000,24(6):674-679.
[10] Petraglia A,Cacciatori C,Chelli S,et al.Litter decomposition:effects of temperature driven by soil moisture and vegetation type[J].Plant and Soil,2019:1-14.
[11] Hungate B A,Dijkstra P,Johnson D W,et al.Elevated CO2 increases nitrogen fixation and decreases soil nitrogen mineralization in Florida scrub oak[J].Global Change Biology,1999,5(7):781-789.
[12] Willcock J,Magan N.Impact of environmental factors on fungal respiration and dry matter losses in wheat straw[J].Journal of Stored Products Research,2000,37(1):35-45.
[13] Garcia-Pausas J,Casals P,Joan Romanyà.Litter decomposition and faunal activity in Mediterranean forest soils:effects of N content and the moss layer[J].Soil Biology & Biochemistry,2004,36(6):989-997.
[14] 周丽,李彦,唐立松,等.光降解在凋落物分解中的作用[J].生态学杂志,2011,30(9):2045-2052.
[15] Throop H L,Archer S R.Resolving the dryland decomposition conundrum:some new perspectives on potential drivers[J].Progress in Botany,2009,70:171-194.
[16] Brandt L A,King J Y,Milchunas D G.Effects of ultraviolet radiation on litter decomposition depend on precipitation and litter chemistry in a shortgrass steppe ecosystem[J].Global Change Biology,2010,13(10):2193-2205.
[17] Austin A T,Carlos L B,William H S.Dual role of lignin in plant litter decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems[J].Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America,2010,107(10):4618-4622.
[18] 宋新章,江洪,张慧玲,等.全球环境变化对森林凋落物分解的影响[J].生态学报,2007,28(9):4414-4423.
[19] Djukic I,Kepfer-Rojas S,Schmidt I K,et al.Early stage litter decomposition across biomes[J].Science of The Total Environment,2018,628-629:1369-1394.
[20] Melillo J M,Muratore A J F.Nitrogen and lignin control of Hardwood leaf litter decomposition dynamics[J].Ecology,1982,63(3):621-626.
[21] Taylor B R,Parsons P W F J.Nitrogen and lignin content as predictors of litter decay rates:a microcosm test[J].Ecology,1989,70(1):97-104.
[22] Smith V C,Bradford M A.Litter quality impacts on grassland litter decomposition are differently dependent on soil fauna across time[J].Applied Soil Ecology,2003,24(2):200-203.
[23] Fioretto A,Papa S,Sorrentino G,et al.Decomposition of Cistus incanus,leaf litter in a Mediterranean maquis ecosystem:mass loss,microbial enzyme activities and nutrient changes[J].Soil Biology & Biochemistry,2001,33(3):311-321.
[24] Pakeman R J,Thwaites R H,Marrs D R H.Vegetation re-establishment on land previously subject to control of Pteridium aquilinum by herbicide[J].Applied Vegetation Science,2000,3(1):95-104.
[25] 张成霞,南志标.不同放牧强度下陇东天然草地土壤微生物三大类群的动态特征[J].草业科学,2010,27(11):131-136.
[26] Killingbeck K T.Nutrients in senesced leaves:keys to the search for potential resorption and resorption proficiency[J].Ecology,1996,77(6):1716-1727.
[27] Cornwell W K,Godoy Óscar,Westoby M.The leaf economic spectrum drives litter decomposition within regional floras worldwide[J].Ecological Letters,2008,11:1065-1071.
[28] Belnap J,Lange O L.Biological soil crusts:structure,function,and management[J].Biological Conservation,2002,108(1):129-130.
[29] 李新荣,张元明,赵允格.生物土壤结皮研究:进展、前沿与展望[J].地球科学进展,2009,24(1):11-24.
[30] 张元明.荒漠地表生物土壤结皮的微结构及其早期发育特征[J].科学通报,2005(1):42-47.
[31] 李守中,肖洪浪,宋耀选,等.腾格里沙漠人工固沙植被区生物土壤结皮对降水的拦截作用[J].中国沙漠,2003,22(6):612-616.
[32] 张静,张元明,周晓兵,等.生物结皮影响下沙漠土壤表面凝结水的形成与变化特征[J].生态学报,2009,29(12):6600-6608.
[33] 张静,张元明,周智彬,等.古尔班通古特沙漠生物结皮影响下土壤水分的日变化[J].干旱区研究,2007(5):661-668.
[34] 张元明,杨维康,王雪芹,等.生物结皮影响下的土壤有机质分异特征[J].生态学报,2005,25(12):3420-3425.
[35] 庄伟伟,张元明.生物结皮对3种荒漠草本植物光合生理特性的影响[J].植物科学学报,2017,35(3):387-397.
[36] Belnap J.Surface disturbances:their role in accelerating desertification[J].Environmental Monitoring and Assessment,1995,37(1/2/3):39-57.
[37] 郭建芳,徐杰,闫彩霞.生物结皮影响下土壤水分效应的研究进展[J].内蒙古师范大学学报(自然科学版),2012,41(1):99-104.
[38] 严海元,辜夕容,申鸿.森林凋落物的微生物分解[J].生态学杂志,2010,29(9):1827-1835.
[39] Zhang Y M,Chen J,Wang L,et al.The spatial distribution patterns of biological soil crusts in the Gurbantunggut Desert,Northern Xinjiang,China[J].Journal of Arid Environments,2007,68(4):599-610.
[40] 陈昌笃,张立运,胡文康.古尔班通古特沙漠的沙地植物群落、区系及其分布的基本特征[J].植物生态学报,1983,7(2):89-99.
[41] 赵建成,张丙昌,张元明.新疆古尔班通古特沙漠生物结皮绿藻研究[J].干旱区研究,2006,23(2):189-194.
[42] 张元明,潘惠霞,潘伯荣.古尔班通古特沙漠不同地貌部位生物结皮的选择性分布[J].水土保持学报,2004,18(4):61-64.
[43] 张元明,曹同,潘伯荣.新疆古尔班通古特沙漠南缘土壤结皮中苔藓植物的研究[J].西北植物学报,2002(1):18-23.
[44] Olson J S.Energy storage and the balance of producers and decomposers in ecological systems[J].Ecology,1963,44(2):322-331.
[45] Zhang D,Hui D,Luo Y,et al.Rates of litter decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems:global patterns and controlling factors[J].Journal of Plant Ecology,2008,1(2):85-93.
[46] Bragazza L,Siffi C,Iacumin P,et al.Mass loss and nutrient release during litter decay in peatland:the role of microbial adaptability to litter chemistry[J].Soil Biology & Biochemistry,2007,39(1):257-267.
[47] Sariyildiz T,Anderson J M.Interactions between litter quality,decomposition and soil fertility:a laboratory study[J].Soil Biology & Biochemistry,2003,35(3):391-399.
[48] 赵红梅,黄刚,马健,等.荒漠区地表凋落物分解对季节性降水增加的响应[J].植物生态学报,2012,36(6):471-482.
[49] Gallo M E,Porras-Alfaro A,Odenbach K J,et al.Photoacceleration of plant litter decomposition in an arid environment[J].Soil Biology & Biochemistry,2009,41(7):1433-1441.
[50] 李学斌,陈林,吴秀玲,等.荒漠草原4种典型植物群落枯落物分解速率及影响因素[J].生态学报,2015,35(12):4105-4114.
[51] 李雪峰,韩士杰,胡艳玲,等.长白山次生针阔混交林叶凋落物中有机物分解与碳、氮和磷释放的关系[J].应用生态学报,2008,19(2):245-251.
[52] 刘瑞鹏,毛子军,李兴欢,等.模拟增温和不同凋落物基质质量对凋落物分解速率的影响[J].生态学报,2013,33(18):5661-5667.
[53] Berg B,Johansson M B,Meentemeyer V.Litter decomposition in a transect of Norway spruce forests:substrate quality and climate control[J].Canadian Journal of Forest Research,2000,30(7):1136-1147.
[54] 张雪梅,王永东,徐新文,等.沙漠公路防护林凋落物量、组成及动态[J].中国沙漠,2017,37(6):94-101.
[1] 周立峰, 杨荣, 赵文智. 荒漠人工固沙植被区土壤结皮斥水性发展特征[J]. 中国沙漠, 2020, 40(3): 185-192.
[2] 王岩松, 刘玉冰, 王增如, 赵丽娜, 漆婧华, 张雯莉. 生物土壤结皮铁代谢微生物组成及其功能基因对演替的响应[J]. 中国沙漠, 2020, 40(3): 193-200.
[3] 赵红梅, 程军回, 张文太, 苏延桂, 张彩云, 盛建东. 古尔班通古特沙漠5种植物凋落物分解特征[J]. 中国沙漠, 2020, 40(2): 165-176.
[4] 杨利贞, 冯丽, 杨贵森, 黄磊. 柠条(Caragana korshinskii)、油蒿(Artemisia ordosica)、花棒(Hedysarum scoparium)叶片吸水潜力及影响因素[J]. 中国沙漠, 2020, 40(2): 214-221.
[5] 刘艳梅, 杨航宇, 贾荣亮, 李宜轩. 人为踩踏生物土壤结皮对土壤酶活性的影响[J]. 中国沙漠, 2019, 39(4): 54-63.
[6] 李成道, 李向义, Henry J Sun, 李磊, 林丽莎. 极端干旱区花花柴(Karelinia caspia)、骆驼刺(Alhagi sparsifolia)和胡杨(Populus euphratica)叶片凋落物分解特征[J]. 中国沙漠, 2019, 39(2): 193-201.
[7] 杨航宇, 刘长仲, 刘艳梅, 杨昊天. 荒漠区踩踏生物土壤结皮对土壤微生物量的影响[J]. 中国沙漠, 2019, 39(2): 35-44.
[8] 傅思华, 胡顺军, 李浩, 王泽锋. 古尔班通古特沙漠南缘梭梭(Haloxylon ammodendron)群落优势植物水分来源[J]. 中国沙漠, 2018, 38(5): 1024-1032.
[9] 靳正忠, 王永东, 雷加强, 李生宇, 徐新文. 塔里木沙漠公路防护林土壤环境因子的根际效应[J]. 中国沙漠, 2018, 38(4): 808-814.
[10] 司守霞, 李宜轩, 回嵘, 刘立超, 谢敏, 王艳莉. 降雪对荒漠生物土壤结皮光合生理特性的影响[J]. 中国沙漠, 2018, 38(3): 560-567.
[11] 都军, 李宜轩, 杨晓霞, 李云飞, 马晓俊. 腾格里沙漠东南缘生物土壤结皮对土壤理化性质的影响[J]. 中国沙漠, 2018, 38(1): 111-116.
[12] 王玉阳, 陈亚鹏, 李卫红, 王日照, 周莹莹, 张建鹏. 塔里木河下游典型荒漠河岸植物水分来源[J]. 中国沙漠, 2017, 37(6): 1150-1157.
[13] 肖巍强, 董治宝, 陈颢, 邵天杰, 崔徐甲, 李超, 宋绍鹏, 肖南, 李露露. 生物土壤结皮对库布齐沙漠北缘土壤粒度特征的影响[J]. 中国沙漠, 2017, 37(5): 970-977.
[14] 杨航宇, 刘艳梅, 王廷璞, 回嵘. 生物土壤结皮对荒漠区土壤微生物数量和活性的影响[J]. 中国沙漠, 2017, 37(5): 950-960.
[15] 陈孟晨, 张景光, 刘立超, 冯丽, 滕嘉玲. 生物土壤结皮对一年生植物影响研究进展[J]. 中国沙漠, 2017, 37(3): 483-490.