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中国沙漠  2020, Vol. 40 Issue (5): 190-199    DOI: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-694X.2020.00071
    
固沙灌丛林营造初期地面节肢动物群落结构特征
刘任涛(),张安宁
宁夏大学 西北土地退化与生态恢复国家重点实验室培育基地,宁夏 银川 750021
Short-term effect of afforested shrub plantations on ground-active arthropod communities in desertified regions
Rentao Liu(),Anning Zhang
Breeding Base for the State Key Lab. of Land Degradation and Ecological Restoration in Northwestern China,Ningxia University,Yinchuan 750021,China
 全文: PDF(1717 KB)   HTML
摘要:

为了解固沙灌丛林营造对地面节肢动物群落组成及多样性的影响,选择扎设草方格后营造的油蒿(Artemisia ordosica)、花棒(Hedysarum scoparium)、沙拐枣(Calligonum mongolicum)和柠条(Caragana korshinskii)灌丛林地为研究对象,以流动沙地为对照,采用陷阱诱捕法调查了不同生境样地地面节肢动物群落组成、多样性与生物量分布及其功能群结构特征。结果显示:(1)相对于流动沙地,油蒿、花棒和柠条林的地面节肢动物群落组成均表现为优势类群和常见类群的类群数变化不大,但稀有类群的类群数有所增加,而且优势类群和稀有类群的优势度增加,常见类群的优势度下降。沙拐枣林地表现为无稀有类群出现。(2)地面节肢动物个体数、类群数和Shannon指数均表现为油蒿林地显著高于流动沙地(P<0.05),而其余3个林地与流动沙地间无显著差异性。生物量则表现为油蒿林地显著低于流动沙地和花棒、沙拐枣和柠条林地(P<0.05)。(3)捕食性和腐食性动物类群的个体数和类群数均表现为油蒿最高,而其余3个林地与流动沙地间无显著差异性。但是,植食性动物类群的个体数则表现为花棒最高,而其余3个林地与流动沙地间无显著差异性。(4)草本植物多度(F=6.91,P=0.001)对地面节肢动物多度分布产生显著影响。灌丛林营造短期内,油蒿灌丛林对地面节肢动物多样性的保育效应要优于其他灌丛林地,而且油蒿、沙拐枣、花棒和柠条等植物短期恢复对地表节肢动物群落组成及营养结构的影响不同。

关键词: 流动沙地灌丛林营造地面节肢动物群落结构防沙治沙    
Abstract:

The aim of present study was to probe into the effect of afforested plantations in terms of shrub species on ground-active arthropod communities in shifting sand land. The Artemisia ordosicaHedysarum scopariumCaragana korshinskii, and Calligonum mongolicum shrubs were selected as afforested subjects within straw checkboard, with the adjacent shifting sand land as a control. An investigation on ground-active arthropod community composition, diversity and trophic structure were carried on by the method of pitfall trapping. All the results were shown that: (1) Relative to the control, there was little change of number of taxonomic groups of dominant groups and common groups observed in A. ordosicaH. scoparium, and C. korshinskii plantations, while the number of rare groups increased remarkably. This point was reverse to the that observed in C. mongolicum plantations where no individuals of rare groups were captured. (2) The abundance, richness and Shannon index of ground-active arthropods were found to be significantly greater in A. ordosica plantations compared with the other three plantations. The biomass of ground-active arthropods was found to be significantly lower in A. ordosica plantations compared with the other three plantations. (3) There were four trophic groups observed including predator, phytophaga, saprophage, and omnivores. The abundance and richness of predator and saprophages were found to be highest in A. ordosica plantations compared with the other habitats. However, the abundance of phytophaga were found to be highest in H. scoparium plantations compared with the other habitats. (4) The abundance of herbaceous plants, soil pH and shrub canopy were the key factors driving the distribution of ground-active arthropod communities between the shifting sand land afforested by different shrub species. It was suggested that there was facilitative effect of A. ordosica plantations on ground-active arthropod diversity as well as the abundance and richness of predator and saprophages relative to the other three shrub plantations. In addition, there was a conducive effect of H. scoparium plantations on the abundances of phytophaga. Furthermore, there was limited effectiveness of single pure shrub afforestation on biodiversity conservation, while it was suggested that the mixed shrub afforestation played implications on the stability of afforested vegetation on desertification control.

Key words: shifting sand land    shrub plantation    ground-active arthropod    community structure    desertification control
收稿日期: 2020-05-15 出版日期: 2020-09-28
ZTFLH:  Q958.1  
基金资助: 国家自然科学基金项目(41867005);宁夏青年拔尖人才培养工程项目(RQ0010);宁夏自然科学基金项目(2020AAC02014)
作者简介: 刘任涛(1980—),男,河南南阳人,博士,研究员,主要从事荒漠生态学研究。E-mail: nxuliu2012@126.com
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引用本文:

刘任涛,张安宁. 固沙灌丛林营造初期地面节肢动物群落结构特征[J]. 中国沙漠, 2020, 40(5): 190-199.

Rentao Liu,Anning Zhang. Short-term effect of afforested shrub plantations on ground-active arthropod communities in desertified regions. Journal of Desert Research, 2020, 40(5): 190-199.

链接本文:

http://www.desert.ac.cn/CN/10.7522/j.issn.1000-694X.2020.00071        http://www.desert.ac.cn/CN/Y2020/V40/I5/190

土壤植被性状样地
流沙油蒿花棒沙拐枣柠条
土壤粗砂粒CS3.6±1.2b9.0±0.5a1.5±0.2c2.3±0.3bc1.6±0.4c
土壤细砂粒FS64.5±6.1bc57.9±3.1c70.2±4.0b85.5±1.6a73.4±2.2b
土壤极细砂VFS29.1±3.8a28.4±3.1a27.5±3.8a12.0±1.6b23.7±2.1a
土壤黏粉粒CpS2.8±1.1b4.7±0.3a0.8±0.2c0.2±0.0c1.3±0.1bc
土壤含水量SM3.7±0.4b7.3±0.6a2.9±0.4bc2.4±0.0c3.4±0.2bc
土壤容重BD1.4±0.0b1.1±0.0c1.4±0.0ab1.5±0.0a1.4±0.0b
土壤电导率EC60.4±1.2b70.0±2.1a57.2±1.1b58.8±0.6b58.6±0.2b
pH9.3±0.0b9.3±0.0b9.4±0.0ab9.4±0.0a9.4±0.0b
土壤总氮TN0.1±0.0b0.3±0.0a0.1±0.0b0.1±0.0b0.1±0.0b
土壤有机碳OC0.7±0.1b4.5±1.3a0.4±0.0b0.4±0.0b0.8±0.4b
土壤C∶N6.5±0.3b15.6±2.6a4.4±0.6b5.6±0.7b7.2±1.2b
草本植物多度HD78.6±9.5b255.3±20.3a51.2±15.6bc14.7±3.4c25.2±8.8c
草本植物物种数HR4.2±0.6b10.0±0.4a4.2±0.7b1.8±0.3c2.0±0.3c
草本植物高度HH23.9±2.7a10.9±1.3b8.9±2.0b16.9±0.9ab18.5±6.1ab
灌丛高度SH41.8±2.1c48.8±5.6c123.0±10.2a69.8±3.2b
灌丛冠幅SC0.4±0.1b0.4±0.1b2.0±0.3a0.3±0.0b
表1  不同样地土壤理化性质和植被特征(平均值±标准误)
类群功能群流沙油蒿花棒沙拐枣柠条
长奇盲蛛科(Phalangiidae)Pr0.0±0.00.0±0.00.2±0.2+0.0±0.00.0±0.0
狼蛛科(Lycosidae)Pr0.0±0.00.8±0.6++0.2±0.2+0.0±0.00.0±0.0
平腹蛛科(Gnaphosidae)Pr0.0±0.00.0±0.00.2±0.2+0.0±0.00.0±0.0
光盔蛛科(Liocranidae)Pr0.0±0.00.2±0.2+0.0±0.00.0±0.00.2±0.2+
蝼蛄科(Gryllotalpidae)Ph1.8±0.4++1.2±0.2++1.2±0.5++0.6±0.4++2.8±0.7++
蟋蟀科(Gryllidae)Ph0.0±0.00.6±0.6+0.0±0.00.0±0.00.0±0.0
蠼螋科(Labiduridae)Pr10.8±3.1+++39.2±11.0+++12.4±5.2+++6.0±2.0+++9.2±3.9+++
步甲科(Carabidae)Pr5.0±1.2+++21.8±4.8+++8.0±3.2+++6.8±2.6+++12.0±3.0+++
蜣螂科(Geotrupidae)Sa0.0±0.02.2±1.0++0.0±0.00.0±0.00.2±0.2+
葬甲科(Silphidae)Sa0.0±0.00.4±0.2+0.0±0.00.0±0.00.0±0.0
阎甲科(Histeridae)Sa0.0±0.00.0±0.00.4±0.4++0.4±0.4++0.0±0.0
拟步甲科(Tenebrionidae)Ph4.0±1.3+++0.6±0.2+11.4±3.9+++4.2±1.5+++4.0±2.4+++
步甲科幼虫(Larval Carabidae)Pr0.2±0.2+0.2±0.2+0.0±0.00.0±0.00.0±0.0
蚁科(Formicidae)Om0.0±0.01.2±0.8++0.0±0.00.0±0.00.0±0.0
表2  不同样地地面节肢动物群落组成及营养类群的个体数分布(平均值±标准误)
图1  不同样地地面节肢动物群落多样性分布不同小写字母表示不同生境的差异性,P<0.05
图2  不同样地地面节肢动物功能群个体数与类群数分布不同小写字母表示不同生境的差异性(P<0.05)
图3  地面节肢动物群落分布与环境因子关系的RDA二维排序图圆形,样地;长奇盲蛛科,S1;狼蛛科,S2;平腹蛛科,S3;光盔蛛科,S4;蝼蛄科,S5;蟋蟀科,S6;蠼螋科,S7;步甲科,S8;蜣螂科,S9;葬甲科,S10;阎甲科,S11;拟步甲科,S12;步甲科幼虫,S13;蚁科,S14;草本植物多度,HD;土壤含水量,SM;土壤C∶N,C.N;土壤黏粉粒,CpS;土壤全氮,TN;土壤pH,pH.
环境因子Df方差FPr(>F)
草本植物多度HD10.0326.9060.001**
土壤含水量SM10.0051.1360.310
土壤C∶N10.0051.1250.331
土壤黏粉粒CpS10.0040.8570.468
土壤全氮TN10.0061.3210.262
pH10.0051.2030.307
残差180.085
表3  环境因子对地面节肢动物群落分布的相对贡献率
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