中国沙漠 ›› 2019, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (1): 171-178.DOI: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-694X.2018.00017

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曹志宏1, 安成邦1, 高信娟2   

  1. 1. 兰州大学 西部环境教育部重点实验室, 甘肃 兰州 730000;
    2. 厦门大学 环境与生态学院, 福建 厦门 361005
  • 收稿日期:2017-12-25 修回日期:2018-03-15 发布日期:2019-02-14
  • 通讯作者: 安成邦(
  • 作者简介:曹志宏(1991-),男,安徽铜陵人,硕士研究生,主要从事气候变化研究。
  • 基金资助:

Drought and flood disasters on the edge of Tengger Desert during 1426-1949 AD

Cao Zhihong1, An Chengbang1, Gao Xinjuan2   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Western China's Environmental Systems, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China;
    2. College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, Fujian, China
  • Received:2017-12-25 Revised:2018-03-15 Published:2019-02-14

摘要: 通过对腾格里沙漠边缘区相关气候灾害的史料和文献进行搜集整理与归纳分析,利用统计分组、时间数列、滑动平均、旱涝等级划分等方法对研究区1426—1949年旱涝灾害的时空变化特征和干湿变化特征进行了研究。结果表明:1426—1949年,腾格里沙漠边缘区共发生旱灾149次(平均每3.52年1次)、涝灾98次(平均每5.35年1次);因各县、区的地貌和建置时间不同,旱涝灾害具有明显的时空差异,在时间尺度上,清朝发生旱涝的频率最高,分别为51%、78.6%,在空间尺度上,沙坡头区发生旱涝灾害次数最多,分别为旱灾110次、涝灾78次;腾格里沙漠边缘区在明朝时期相对干旱,清朝、民国时期湿度增加,这与小冰期全球性的降温、西风强盛导致相对湿度增加和西风带位置南移导致降水增多有关。

关键词: 历史文献, 旱涝灾害, 湿度变化, 腾格里沙漠

Abstract: We collected historical documents about climatic disasters in the Tengger Desert, located in northwest China. Statistical categorization, time-series analysis, moving average, and rank of climatic disasters were the main means to analyze these information and data we organized. The changes between wet and dry and spatial-temporal characteristics of climatic disasters in the study area during 1426-1949 AD were researched. This study shows that droughts occurred every 3.52 years, and floods occurred every 5.35 years during the study period on the southern and western edges of the Tengger Desert. Apparent spatial-temporal differences were invited by various landforms, and historic construction of counties and districts. At the time scale, both the droughts (51%) and flood disasters (78.6%) had the highest frequency in Qing dynasty. As for space scale, Shapotou district experienced the most amount of climatic disasters with 110 droughts and 78 floods, respectively. The climate in Qing dynasty or the Republican period was wetter than that in Ming dynasty. This was due to global cooling during Little Ice Age, strong westerly and southward of westerlies, leading increasing precipitation in the study area.

Key words: historical documents, drought and flood disasters, variation of humidity, Tengger Desert